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M. Smith AUBURN World History 2 spring 2015 SECOND SET

Terms in this set (68)

Leader of the Chinese Communist Party, led the communist revolution.
Mao and Zhu De, the commander in chief of the army, successfully developed the tactics of guerrilla warfare from base areas in the countryside, they move onto city but it fail.
Since there was little support for the revolution in the cities, the promise of ultimate victory now seemed to reside in the gradual strengthening and expansion of the base areas. then lead to the long march.
then came the xi'an incident after that Mao came into power after Chiang left.
Mao and other Communist leaders set out to reshape Chinese society. Industry came under state ownership and China's farmers began to be organised into collectives. All opposition was ruthlessly suppressed. The Chinese initially received significant help from the Soviet Union, but relations soon began to cool.

In 1958, in an attempt to introduce a more 'Chinese' form of communism, Mao launched the 'Great Leap Forward'. This aimed at mass mobilisation of labour to improve agricultural and industrial production. The result, instead, was a massive decline in agricultural output, which, together with poor harvests, led to famine and the deaths of millions. The policy was abandoned and Mao's position weakened.

In an attempt to re-assert his authority, Mao launched the 'Cultural Revolution' in 1966, aiming to purge the country of 'impure' elements and revive the revolutionary spirit. One-and-a-half million people died and much of the country's cultural heritage was destroyed. In September 1967, with many cities on the verge of anarchy, Mao sent in the army to restore order.
(1968)1. There were no riots or demonstrations but, during 1967, students and writers were complaining about the lack of freedom, and the poor performance of the Czechoslovak economy.
Action plan
2. But when Antonin Novotny, the Czechoslovak president, asked Leonid Brezhnev, the Soviet leader, for help, Brezhnev did not support him.
3. Novotny fell from power and on 5 January 1968, Alexandr Dubcek - a reformer - took over as leader of the Communist Party (KSC).
4. In April 1968, Dubcek's government announced an Action Plan for what it called a new model of socialism - it removed state controls over industry and allowed freedom of speech.
Freedom in Prague
5. For four months (the Prague Spring), there was freedom in Czechoslovakia. But then the revolution began to run out of control. Dubcek announced that he was still committed to democratic communism, but other political parties were set up.
6. Also, Dubcek stressed that Czechoslovakia would stay in the Warsaw Pact, but in August, President Tito of Yugoslavia, a country not in the Warsaw Pact, visited Prague.
500 000 troops invade
7. At a meeting in Bratislava on 3 August 1968, Brezhnev read out a letter from some Czechoslovakian Communists asking for help. He announced the Brezhnev Doctrine - the USSR would not allow any Eastern European country to reject Communism.
8. On 20 August 1968, 500,000 Warsaw Pact troops invaded Czechoslovakia. Dubcek and three other leaders were arrested and sent to Moscow.
A tank
9. The Czechoslovakians did not fight the Russians. Instead, they stood in front of the tanks, and put flowers in the soldiers' hair. Jan Palach burned himself to death in protest.
10. Brezhnev put in Gustav Husak, a supporter of Russia, as leader of the KSC.
At the opening of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference in Peking, Mao Zedong announces that the new Chinese government will be "under the leadership of the Communist Party of China."

The September 1949 conference in Peking was both a celebration of the communist victory in the long civil war against Nationalist Chinese forces and the unveiling of the communist regime that would henceforth rule over China. Mao and his communist supporters had been fighting against what they claimed was a corrupt and decadent Nationalist government in China since the 1920s. Despite massive U.S. support for the Nationalist regime, Mao's forces were victorious in 1949 and drove the Nationalist government onto the island of Taiwan. In September, with cannons firing salutes and ceremonial flags waving, Mao announced the victory of communism in China and vowed to establish the constitutional and governmental framework to protect the "people's revolution."

In outlining the various committees and agencies to be established under the new regime, Mao announced that "Our state system of the People's Democratic Dictatorship is a powerful weapon for safeguarding the fruits of victory of the people's revolution and for opposing plots of foreign and domestic enemies to stage a comeback. We must firmly grasp this weapon." He denounced those who opposed the communist government as "imperialistic and domestic reactionaries." In the future, China would seek the friendship of "the Soviet Union and the new democratic countries." Mao also claimed that communism would help end reputation as a lesser-developed country. "The era in which the Chinese were regarded as uncivilized is now over. We will emerge in the world as a highly civilized nation." On October 1, 1949, the People's Republic of China was formally announced, with Mao Zedong as its leader. He would remain in charge of the nation until his death in 1976.
During the second session of the Eighth Party Congress in May 1958, Liu outlined the strategy for the second five-year economic plan (called the Great Leap Forward), which was to lay the foundation for the rapid industrialization of China. Shortly after the initiation of the Great Leap Forward, however, it became apparent that industrialization could not be achieved as rapidly as hoped, and a policy of retrenchment was called for. Partly as a result of the failures of the Great Leap, Mao relinquished his position as chairman of the People's Republic, though he remained party chairman, and Liu assumed the chairmanship in April 1959. During this period, Liu tried to revitalize agriculture by initiating policies that permitted peasants to cultivate private plots and spurred them on with monetary incentives; both were policies to which Mao later strongly objected.

In his new post as head of state, Liu began to play a more prominent role in foreign affairs, receiving state visitors from Indonesia, the Soviet Union, Pakistan, Ghana, Cuba, North Vietnam, Cambodia, and North Korea. In addition, he traveled abroad rather extensively during 1959-66. Upon reaching this pinnacle, however, Liu became one of the most important figures to be purged in the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966-76). Many persons associated with him, such as Peng Zhen, mayor of Beijing, and Deng Xiaoping, a member of the Political Bureau, were also purged, decimating what had been viewed as a highly cohesive Chinese leadership. In October 1968 Liu was stripped of party positions and labeled China's Khrushchev, and, by April 1969, a new constitutionally designated successor to Mao had been chosen—Lin Biao, head of the armed forces. In the autumn of 1971 Lin Biao disappeared, and it was announced that he—"a conspirator and arch-traitor"—had died in an airplane crash while fleeing from an attempt to assassinate Mao.
The policy of détente refers to the time in the 1960s-1970s when the two superpowers eased tension and tried to cooperate to avoid conflict in the Cold War. A number of events happened during this time period that illustrate this new policy.

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: powers with nuclear weapons agreed not to give any other countries nuclear technology.

Russia and America signed the SALT1 Treaty (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) agreeing to limit their anti-ballistic missiles and bombers.

The Helsinki Agreement recognised Soviet control over Eastern Europe, concluded a trade agreement, and Russia promised to respect human rights.

Causes of détente
America was shocked by the Vietnam War and wanted to stay out of world affairs. There was also a vociferous CND movement in the West.

The arms race was very expensive for both superpowers.
The price of oil rocketed in the 1970s, and both superpowers experienced economic problems.

Limitations of détente
The Non-Proliferation Treaty did not stop other countries developing nuclear weapons (eg China, and perhaps South Africa and Israel).

Neither Russia or America kept to the SALT1 agreement. Neither side reduced their conventional weapons. Further talks were much less successful and a SALT2 Treaty in 1979 added little.

In the Arab-Israeli War of 1973, America supported Israel, and Russia supported Egypt and Syria.

The Helsinki Agreement achieved nothing - it confirmed the Iron Curtain and Russia ignored its promises about human rights.

Table tennis and space meetings were just one-off propaganda stunts.

Brezhnev said that Communists would still try to destroy capitalism. Some historians suggest that Nixon only went to China to drive a wedge between Russia and China
This organization was originally designed to be a state security committee and was attached to the Council of Ministers. However, it operated more independently than any of the other bodies of government within the Soviet Union. The KGB was the world's largest spy and state-security machine, involved in all aspects of life of everyday people in the Soviet Union. The KGB was a secretive and secluded organization, and it has been said that, "Its doors are shut tightly to the public." The KGB was divided into different departments, each run by a representative whose purpose was to ensure the observations of the security regulations. More than 500,000 people worked within the KGB and there were thousands of agents abroad. The 1977 Soviet Constitution stated that the Council of Ministers would coordinate and direct the work of the Ministries and state committees, including the KGB. On July 5, 1978, a new law was passed and changed the status of the KGB, and made its chairman a member of the Council of Ministers.

The main duties of the KGB were to gather intelligence in other nations, conduct counterintelligence, maintain the secret police, the KGB military corps and the border guards, suppress internal resistance, and conduct electronic espionage. The KGB also enforced Soviet morals and promoted Soviet ideology with propaganda. The agents in this department made sure that only the information that should be allowed in public was released.

Like most Soviet organizations, the KGB fell apart in the late 1980s. After Mikhail Gorbachev came to power he began to make reforms within the KGB. Offices were open to the media and interviews of the KGB officials were permitted. At the same time most of the duties of the KGB were spun off in different directions. The KGB was later renamed the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service and continued to handle foreign intelligence
Cold War

Coup attempt against Gorbachev collapses

Just three days after it began, the coup against Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev collapses. Despite his success in avoiding removal from office, Gorbachev's days in power were numbered. The Soviet Union would soon cease to exist as a nation and as a Cold War threat to the United States.

The coup against Gorbachev began on August 18, led by hard-line communist elements of the Soviet government and military. The attempt was poorly planned and disorganized, however. The leaders of the coup seemed to spend as much time bickering among themselves-and, according to some reports, drinking heavily-as they did on trying to win popular support for their action. Nevertheless, they did manage to put Gorbachev under house arrest and demand that he resign from leadership of the Soviet Union. Many commentators in the West believed that the administration of President George Bush would come to the rescue, but were somewhat surprised at the restrained response of the U.S. government. These commentators did not know that at the time a serious debate was going on among Bush officials as to whether Gorbachev's days were numbered and whether the United States should shift its support to Russian President Boris Yeltsin. Yeltsin's stock rose sharply as he publicly denounced the coup and organized strikes and street protests by the Russian people. The leaders of the coup, seeing that most of the Soviet military did not support their action, called off the attempt and it collapsed on August 21.

The collapse of the coup brought a temporary reprieve to the Gorbachev regime, but among U.S. officials he was starting to be seen as damaged goods. Once a darling of the U.S. press and public, Gorbachev increasingly was viewed as incompetent and a failure. U.S. officials began to discuss the post-Gorbachev situation in the Soviet Union. Based on what had transpired during the August 1991 coup, they began a slow but steady tilt toward Yeltsin. In retrospect, this policy seemed extremely prudent, given that Gorbachev resigned as leader of the Soviet Union in December 1991. Despite the turmoil around him, Yeltsin continued to serve as president of the largest and most powerful of the former soviet socialist republics, Russia.
When Mikhail S. Gorbachev (1931-) became general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in March 1985, he launched his nation on a dramatic new course. His dual program of "perestroika" ("restructuring") and "glasnost" ("openness") introduced profound changes in economic practice, internal affairs and international relations. Within five years, Gorbachev's revolutionary program swept communist governments throughout Eastern Europe from power and brought an end to the Cold War (1945-91), the largely political and economic rivalry between the Soviets and the United States and their respective allies that emerged following World War II. Gorbachev's actions also inadvertently set the stage for the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union, which dissolved into 15 individual republics.
Gorbachev and Reagan took part in five summits between 1985 and 1988. Their discussions resulted in the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty in 1987, which brought about a major reduction in both nations' weapons stockpiles
The Gorbachev initiative that had the most far-reaching effects was his decision to abandon Soviet control of the Communist nations of Eastern Europe. Since World War II, leaders of the USSR had viewed the maintenance of these states as essential to their nation's security, and they had crushed anti-Soviet uprisings in Warsaw Pact countries (a group of eight Communist nations in Eastern Europe, including Poland and Hungary) that sought greater independence. However, just a year after taking power, Gorbachev oversaw reforms that loosened the Soviet grip on these states. Then, in a landmark December 1988 speech at the United Nations, he declared that all nations should be free to choose their own course without outside interference. To the amazement of millions, he capped this speech by announcing that the USSR would significantly reduce the number of troops and tanks that were based in the Eastern Bloc countries.