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air sac of a lung

aortic body

receptor in the aorti arch sensitive to oxygen content, carbon dioxide content, and blood

auditory tube

air tube that connects the pharynx to the middle ear

bicarbonate ion

the form in which carbon dioxide is carried in the blood


smaller air passages in the lungs


one of the two major divisions of the trachea; leads to the lungs


hemoglobin carrying carbon dioxide

carotid body

structure located at the branching of the carotid arteries; contains chemoreceptors


shell-shaped structure, such as that seen in the bones of the nasal cavity


structure that covers the glottis during the process of swallowing

expiratory reserve volume

volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled after normal exhalation

external respiration

exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveoli and blood


slitlike opening between the vocal cords


pigment of red blood cells responsible for oxygen transport

inspiratory reserve volume

volume of air that can be forcibly inhaled after normal inhalation

internal respiration

exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and tissue fluid


structure that contains the vocal cords, aka voice box


internal respiratory organ containing moist surfaces for gas exchange

nasal cavities

space within the nose


specialized structure on the face that serves as the sense organ of smell and as a part of the respiratory system


hemoglobin bound to oxygen in a loose reversible way

paranasal sinus

one of several air-filled cavities in the maxillary, frontal, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones that is lines with mucous membrane and drains into the nasal cavity


common passageway for both food intake and air movement; throat


serous membrane that covers the lungs and lines the walls of the chest and diaphragm

reduced hemoglobin

hemoglobin that is carrying hydrogen ions

residual volume

volume of air that remains in the lungs after normal exhalation

respiratory center

group of neurons in the medulla oblongata that regulates respiration

surface tension

force that holds moist membranes together when water molecules attract


agent that reduces the surface tension of water; in lungs, prevents the alveoli from collapsing

tidal volume

amount of air that enters the lungs during a normal, quiet inspiration


partly encapsulated lymph nodule located in the pharynx





vital capacity

maximum amount of air a person can exhale after taking the deepest breath possible

vocal cord

folds of tissue within the larynx that produce sounds when they vibrate

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