36 terms

U.S. History Vocab Terms

Satellite State
A political term that refers to a country which is formally independent, but under heavy influence or control by another country.
the place at which the three allied leaders, Truman, Stalin, and Atlee, met to discuss the distribution of Germany and the ultimatum that they would issue to Japan demanding thier immediate surrender
Iron Curtain
a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eatern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
Truman Doctrine
First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
George F. Keenan
American ambassador to the Soviet Union who proposed the policy of containment, American diplomat who stressed the need to contain communism within its current borders
a U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances
Marshall Plan
Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
Berlin Airlift
Successful effort by the United States and Britain to ship by air 2.3 million tons of supplies to the residents of the Western-controlled sectors of Berlin from June 1948 to May 1949, in response to a Soviet blockade of all land and canal routes to the divided city.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
In 1949, the United States, Canada, and ten European nations formed this military mutual-defense pact. In 1955, the Soviet Union countered NATO with the formation of the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance among those nations within its own sphere of influence.
Warsaw Pact
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
Jiang Jieshi
(nationalist) Succeeded Sun (1925) energetic army officer, received military training in Japan and wanted to smash warlords and reunite China. 1926- march into north china, crushed warlords and advanced, capital Beijing, mid campaign-> strikes communism (threat to his power) 1927- Guomindang slaughters comm. members, thousands killed in Shanghai
38th Parallel
line of latitude that separated North and South Korea
Douglas McArthur
commander in chief of US forces in the Pacific Theater of operations, Left the Philipines vowing "I shall return" during the Korean War, however, was fires for insubordination.
a port on the western coast of South Korea, on the Yellow Sea, near Seoul; pop. 1,818,000. It was the site of a successful invasion by U.S. troops in 1950 that enabled them to return Seoul to South Korea.
Limited War
conflict in which the belligerents participating in the war do not expend all of each of the participants available resources at their disposal, whether human, industrial, agricultural, military, natural, technological, or otherwise in a specific conflict
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
(DDE), A regional defense pact pulled together by Dulles to prevent the "fall" to communism of South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.
Arms Race
Cold war competition between the U.S. and Soviet Union to build up their respective armed forces and weapons
Mutual Assured Destruction Drinciple (MAD)
During the Kennedy administration, Secretary of State McNamara declared that massive retaliation was no longer effective because both sides could cause too much harm to each other, so this was the new nuclear policy
John Foster Dulles
United States diplomat who (as Secretary of State) pursued a policy of opposition to the USSR by providing aid to American allies (1888-1959)
Massive Retaliation
The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten "massive retaliation" with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.
the policy of pushing a dangerous situation to the brink of disaster (to the limits of safety)
Nikita Khruschev
communist, head of soviet union. condemned the excesses of the Stalinb regime and inched toward more peaceful relations with the democratic west.
put under state control or ownership
Suez Sanal Crises
Eisenhower Doctrine
Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
an independent agency of the United States government responsible for collecting and coordinating intelligence and counterintelligence activities abroad in the national interest
National Aeronautic and Space Administration - a US government agency in charge of the space program
Red Scare
a period of general fear of communists
Smith Act
The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda,
Hollywood Ten
Group of people in the film industry who were jailed for refusing to answer congressional questions regarding Communist influence in Hollywood
list that circulated among employers, beginning in 1947, containing the names of persons who should not be hired
Alger Hiss
A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
Julius & Ethel Rosenburg
convicted in 1951 of giving atomic bomb data found by American scientists to the Soviet Union; only Americans ever executed during peacetime for espionage
Joseph R. McCarthy
Republican senator; held lists of communists serving secretly in government agencies; this information showed that the U.S. had already fallen prey to subversive influences
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.