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Terms in this set (45)
Hypoxia causes cell death within a few minutes in the immediate area supplied by the blocked or ruptured artery: called a cerebral infarct; these cells cannot be repaired or replaced.
Area around the infarct, called the ischemic penumbra or transitional zone, is vulnerable to injury because of the low blood flow.
Further injury results in response to injury in an ischemic cascade- glutamate is released, which facilitates calcium release that destroys cells.
Hemorrhagic- a bleed into or around the brain caused by a weakened blood vessel; once a vessels bursts, the chance of death is 30 to 40 percent and the chance of moderate to severe brain damage is 20 to 35 percent, even if the aneurysm is treated (ASA, 2010 Intracerebral- hypertension, ageing
In the meninges -most common is subarachnoid
Arteriovenous malformations- arteries/ veins without capillary bed; estimated that about one in 200-500 people may have an AVM (ASA, 2010)
Increased intracranial pressure from the blood volume and compression of brain tissue by the released blood damage the brain, as well as causing areas of ischemia due to loss of blood supply.

Use of scanning (CT, MRI) may reveal that more strokes (more than 15-20%) are small hemorrhages rather than ischemic in cause than were previously known.
Hemiparesis (weakness) or hemiplegia (paralysis) contralaterally to hemisphere lesion ( about 10-20% of corticospinal fibers don't cross, though, so there is likely to be some weakness on ipsilateral side too). Weakness is due to decreased neural input to LMNs. Other losses include loss of isolated movement, delayed initiation and termination of movements, loss of anticipatory and reactive postural adjustments.
Altered muscle tone on the hemiparetic/ plegic side: initial cerebral shock results in flaccidity. Spasticity (velocity dependent resistance) emerges in most people at some point.