Upgrade to remove ads
BMB Chapter 18
Terms in this set (14)
How Are Psychiatric Disorders Currently Diagnosed?
1. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (current version is DSM-5) - Published by the of the American Psychiatric Association
2. International Classification of Diseases (current version is ICD 10) - Published by the World Health Organization.
3. a Mental Status Exam (MSE), which is designed to provide a comprehensive description of someone's current mental state.
Schizophrenia Positive Functions
-Delusions (of being controlled, of being persecuted, of grandeur)
-Emotional Affect that is Too Positive or Too Negative for --Situation
-Incoherent Speech or Thought
Schizophrenia Negative Functions
Affective Flattening (Reduced or absence of emotionality)
Alogia (Reduction or absence of speech)
Avolition (Reduction or absence of motivation)
Anhedonia (Reduced or absence of pleasure)
Catatonia (Reduced or absence of movement)
Diagnosis of Schizophrenia
Diagnosis: Typically requires two of the above symptoms for at least one month. However, if either delusions or hallucinations are present for this duration, that alone is sufficient to make a diagnosis.
Dopamine Theory of Schizophrenia
1. Opposing effects of specific drugs on Schizophrenia vs. Parkinson's Disease (which is characterized by tremors plus difficulty initiating and stopping movements)
Drugs (e.g. L-DOPA) used to treat Parkinson's disease would cause schizophrenia-like symptoms if the dose was too high
2. Abuse of amphetamines and cocaine (both dopamine agonists) produces schizophrenic-like symptoms
3. In general, the higher affinity a drug has for dopamine receptors, the more effective it is in treating schizophrenia (except Haloperidol)
4. Postmortem investigations have found slightly elevated amounts of dopamine in basal ganglia.
Limitations of the Dopamine Theory
1. Even though neuroleptic drugs act quickly at the synapse (by blocking the D2 receptors), they do not alleviate schizophrenia symptoms for weeks.
2. Neuroleptics drugs are only effective for some schizophrenics
They tend to only work on positive symptoms
3. There is also evidence that schizophrenia is associated with damage to areas of the brain that are not part of the dopamine circuit
4. Therefore, it may be best to think of schizophrenia as multiple disorders with multiple causes—dopamine at D2 receptors is just one important factor in the disease.
Schizophrenia - Current State of Research & Treatment
1. Atypical neuroleptics treat some symptoms of schizophrenia without directly affecting dopamine D2 receptors.
2. Studies examine the effects of psychedelic drugs (e.g., LSD) as modeling positive symptoms and dissociate anesthetics (e.g., ketamine) as modeling negative symptoms.
What Are Affective Disorders?
Psychiatric disorders characterized by disturbances of mood or emotion
Also known as mood disorders.
Characterized by intense feelings of sadness, hopelessness, despair, and a lack of self-confidence.
- Reactive Depression: Depression that is in response to a negative life experience (death of a loved one) but has persisted well beyond what most people would consider to be normal
- Endogenous Depression: Depression that has no apparent cause.
Characterized by inappropriate elation, hyperactivity, overconfidence, impulsivity, distractibility, and high energy.
Check out the drugs that have been effective
1. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
Monoamine oxidase is an enzyme that breaks down norepinephrine/serotonin so these MAOI drugs prevent this process, which allows norepinephrine/serotonin to remain in the synapse and bind with receptors longer - helps relieve symptoms of depression
2. Tricyclic Antidepressants
Instead of stopping the breakdown, these drugs block the reuptake of norepinephrine/serotonin; once again, this allows norepinephrine/serotonin to remain in the synapse and bind with receptors longer - helps relieve symptoms of depression
3. Selective Serotonin-Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) and Selective Norepinephrine-Reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)
No more effective at relieving symptoms of depression than tricyclics, but have fewer unfavorable side effects.
Different Flavors of Anxiety Disorders
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
Stress and anxiety in the absence of a causal stimulus
Phobic Anxiety Disorder (aka Phobias)
Similar to generalized, but triggered by a particular stimulus
Sudden attacks of extreme fear and stress; may occur with other disorders or alone
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Obsessive thoughts (cannot stop thinking about them) alleviated by compulsive actions (repetitive and cannot stop performing them)
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Pattern of psychological distress following extreme stress
Treatments for Anxiety
Benzodiazepines—GABA agonists (facilitate effects of GABA by binding to their receptors)
Can help reduce anxiety symptoms
However, they can have serious side effects (e.g., sedation), are highly addictive and do not work for everyone.
Serotonin Agonists (including SSRIs)
Can reduce anxiety without sedation or serious side effects
Issues Regarding the Financial Reality of the Pharmaceutical Industry
Conflict of Interest
Drug companies test their own drugs; may forbid scientists from publishing negative findings.
Orphan Drug Problem
Drugs for rare diseases are unprofitable because there are not that many people who will pay for them.
Due to high costs of clinical trials, few scientific findings translate to new drugs.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Biopsychology of Psychiatric Disorders (FINAL)
Chapter 18: Biopsychology of Psychiatric Disorders
Biopsychology of Psychiatric Disorders
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Lord Byron's Poems
John Keats' Poems
QRM: Brief Intro to Stats
Chapter 12: Surveys & Self-Report Data