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217 terms

Medical Terminology

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chlamydia
parasitic microorganism causing genital infections in males and females can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease in females
lactation
function of secreting milk after childbirth from the breast or mammary glands
effacement
thining of the cervix during labor
gonorrhea
sexually transmitted inflammation of the musous membranes of either sex
dystocia
abnormal or difficult labor and childbirth
fimbriae
finger like extensions at the end of fallopian tubes
meconium
substance that collects in the intestines of a fetus and becomes first stool of newborn
fundus
domes in upper portion of an organ such as the stomach or uterus
psudeocysis
false pregnancy
infertility
inablitiy to produce children
cryptorchidism
failure of testes to descend into the scrotal sac before birth
spermatolytic
destruction of sprem
condyloma
wartlike growth on the external genitalia
rectocele
protrusion of hernia of the rectum into the vagina
atresia
congenital lack of a normal body opening
parturition
childbirth
abortifacient
medication that terminates a pregnancy
amniocentesis
Puncturing of the amniotic sac using a needle and syringe for the purpose of withdrawing amniotic fluid for testing.
amniocentesis
Can assist in determining fetal maturity, development, and genetic disorders.
amnion
inner layer of two membranous sacs surrounding the fetus.
amniotic sac
sac containing amniotic fluid in which the baby floats.
amniorrhea
discharge of amniotic fluid
amniotic
pertaining to amnion
amniotic fluid
fluid inside amniotic sac
amniotomy
incision into the amniotic sac
androgen
A class of steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex.
testosterone
hormone that produces a masculinizing effect.
androgen therapy
Replacement male hormones to treat patients who produce insufficient hormone naturally.
andropathy
male disease
anorchism
Congenital absence of one or both testes.
anteflexion
While the uterus is normally in this position, an exaggeration of the forward bend of the uterus is abnormal. The forward bend is near the neck of the uterus. The position of cervix, or opening of the uterus, remains normal.
antepartum
before birth
antiprostatic agents
Medications to treat early cases of benign prostatic hypertrophy; may prevent surgery for mild cases.
aspermia
Lack of, or failure to ejaculate, sperm.
balanitis
Inflammation of the skin covering the glans penis.
balanoplasty
Surgical repair of the glans penis.
balanorrhea
Discharge from the glans penis.
barrier contraception
Prevention of a pregnancy using a device to prevent sperm from meeting an ovum; examples include condoms, diaphragms, and cervical caps.
Bartholin's glands
Glands located on either side of the vaginal opening that secrete mucus for vaginal lubrication.
benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)
Enlargement of the prostate gland commonly seen in males over 50.
breast cancer
Malignant tumor of the breast; usually forms in the milk-producing gland tissue or the lining of the milk ducts.
breasts
Milk-producing glands to provide nutrition for newborn.
mammary glands
Milk-producing glands to provide nutrition for newborn.
breech presentation
Placement of the fetus in which the buttocks or feet are presented first for delivery rather than the head.
bulbourethral gland
two small male reproductive system glands located on either side of the urethra distal to the prostate, secretion neutralizes the acidity in the urethra and the vagina.
crowper's gland
bulbourethral gland
candidiasis
Yeast-like infection of the skin and mucous membranes that can result in white plaques on the tongue and vagina.
castration
Excision of the testicles in the male or the ovaries in the female.
cauterization
Destruction of tissue using an electric current, a caustic product, or a hot iron, or by freezing.
cervical
Pertaining to the neck.
cervical biopsy
Taking a sample of tissue from the cervix to test for the presence of cancer cells
cervical cancer
Malignant growth in the cervix. An especially difficult type of cancer to treat, it causes 5% of the cancer deaths in women. PAP tests have helped to detect early cervical cancer.
cervicectomy
Excision of the cervix.
cervix
The narrow, distal portion of the uterus that joins to the vagina.
cesarean section (CS, C-section)
Surgical delivery of a baby through an incision into the abdominal and uterine walls. Legend has it that the Roman emperor Julius Caesar was the first person born by this method.
chancroid
Highly infectious nonsyphilitic venereal ulcer.
chlamydia
Parasitic microorganism causing genital infections in males and females; can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease in females and eventual infertility.
choriocarcinoma
Rare type of cancer of the uterus. May occur following a normal pregnancy or abortion.
chorion
outer layer of two membranous sacs surrounding the fetus. It helps to form the placenta.
chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
Removal of a small piece of the chorion for genetic analysis; may be done at an earlier stage of pregnancy than amniocentesis.
circumcision
Surgical removal of the end of the prepuce or foreskin of the penis. Generally performed on the newborn male at the request of the parents for ease of hygiene or ritual practice in some religions.
clitoris
A small organ containing erectile tissue that is covered by the labia minora. It contains sensitive tissue that is aroused during sexual stimulation and is similar to the penis in the male.
colostrum
A thin fluid first secreted by the breast after delivery; it does not contain much protein, but is rich in antibodies.
colposcopy
Visual examination of the cervix and vagina using a colposcope or instrument with a magnifying lens.
conception
Fertilization of an ovum by a sperm.
condyloma
Wart-like growth on the external genitalia.
conization
Surgical removal of a core of cervical tissue. Also refers to partial removal of the cervix.
corpus
the body or central portion of the uterus
Cowper's gland
Also called bulbourethral gland.
crowning
When the head of the baby is visible through the vaginal opening. A sign that birth is imminent.
cryptorchidism
Failure of the testes to descend into the scrotal sac before birth. Generally, the testes will descend before the boy is one year old. A surgical procedure called orchidopexy may be required to bring the testes down into the scrotum permanently. Failure of the testes to descend could result in sterility in the male.
culdoscopy
Examination of the female pelvic cavity by introducing an endoscope through the wall of the vagina.
cystocele
Hernia or outpouching of the bladder that protrudes into the vagina, may cause urinary frequency and urgency.
delivery
emergence of the baby from the birth canal.
digital rectal exam (DRE)
Manual examination for an enlarged prostate gland performed by palpating (feeling)the prostate gland through the wall of the rectum.
dilation and curettage (D & C)
Surgical procedure in which the opening of the cervix is dilated and the uterus is scrapped or suctioned of its lining or tissue. Often performed after a spontaneous abortion and to stop excessive bleeding from other causes.
dilation stage
The first stage of labor. The thinning of the cervix is called effacement.
dysmenorrhea
Painful cramping that is associated with menstruation.
dyspareunia
Painful sexual intercourse.
dystocia
Abnormal or difficult labor and childbirth.
eclampsia
Convulsive seizures and coma that can occur in a woman between the 20th week of pregnancy and the first week of postpartum. Often associated with hypertension.
effacement
thinning of the cervix during labor.
ejaculation
impulse of forcing seminal fluid from the male urethra.
elective abortion
legal termination of a pregnancy for nonmedical reasons.
embryo
term to describe the developing infant from fertilization until the end of the eighth week.
embryonic
Pertaining to the embryo.
endocervicitis
Inflammation of the inner aspect of the cervix.
endometrial biopsy
Taking a sample of tissue from the lining of the uterus to test for abnormalities.
endometrial cancer
Cancer of the endometrial lining of the uterus.
endometriosis
Abnormal condition of endometrium tissue appearing throughout the pelvis or on the abdominal wall.
endometritis
Inflammation of the endometrial lining of the uterus.
endometrium
The inner lining of the uterus. It contains a rich blood supply and reacts to hormonal changes every month, which results in menstruation. During a pregnancy, the lining of the uterus does not leave the body but remains to nourish the unborn child.
epididymal
Pertaining to the epididymis.
epididymectomy
Surgical excision of the epididymis.
epididymis
a coiled tubule that lies on top of the tests within the scrotum.
epididymis
tube stores sperm as they are produced and turns into the vas deferens.
epididymitis
Inflammation of the epididymis that causes pain and swelling in the inguinal area.
episiorrhaphy
Suture the perineum.
episiotomy
Surgical incision of the perineum to facilitate the delivery process to prevent an irregular tearing of tissue during birth.
epispadias
Congenital opening of the urethra on the dorsal surface of the penis.
erectile dysfunction (ED)
Inability to copulate due to inability to maintain an erection; also called impotence.
erectile dysfunction agents
Medication that temporarily produces an erection in patients with erectile dysfunction.
erectile tissue
Tissue with numerous blood vessels and nerve endings.
erectile tissue
becomes filled with blood and enlarges in size in response to sexual stimulation.
estrogen
One of the hormones produced by the ovaries. It works with progesterone to control the menstrual cycle and it is responsible for producing the secondary sexual characteristics.
expulsion stage
Stage of labor and delivery during which the baby is delivered.
fallopian tubes
Organ in the female reproductive system that transports eggs from the ovary to the uterus.
fertility drug
Medication that triggers ovulation. Also called ovulation stimulant.
fertilization
The fusion of an ova and sperm to produce an embryo.
impregnation
fertilization
fetal
pertaining to fetus
fetal monitoring
Using electronic equipment placed on the mother's abdomen to check the baby's heart rate and strength during labor.
fetus
term to describe the developing newborn from the end of the eighth week until birth.
fibrocystic breast disease
Benign cysts forming in the breast.
fibroid tumor
Benign tumor or growth that contains fiber-like tissue, most common tumors in women.
fimbriae
fingerlike extensions on the end of the fallopian tubes, drape over each ovary in order to direct the ovum into the fallopian tube after it is expelled by the ovary.
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
hormone secreted by anterior pituitary gland. It stimulates growth of eggs in females and sperm in males.
fraternal twins
Twins that develop from two different ova fertilized by two different sperm; although twins, these siblings do not have identical DNA.
genetic counseling
Evaluation of parents' potential for producing a child with a genetic disease; especially important for families with a history of genetic diseases.
genital herpes
Creeping skin disease that can appear like a blister or vesicle, caused by a sexually transmitted virus.
genital warts
Growths and elevations of warts on the genitalia of both males and females that can lead to cancer of the cervix in females.
genitalia
The male and female reproductive organs.
genitourinary system
Referring to the organs of the urinary system and the female or male sexual organs.
gestation
Length of time from conception to birth, generally nine months. Calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period, with a range of from 259 days to 280 days.
glans penis
larger and softer tip of the penis
glanis penis
protected by a covering called the prepuce or foreskin
gonorrhea
Sexually transmitted inflammation of the mucous membranes of either sex.
gonorrhea
Can be passed on to an infant during the birth process.
gynecologist
physician specialized in treating conditions and diseases of the female reproductive system.
gynecology
Branch of medicine specializing in conditions of the female reproductive system.
hematosalpinx
Condition of having blood in the fallopian tubes.
hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)
Condition in which antibodies in the mother's blood enter the fetus's blood and cause anemia, jaundice, edema, and enlargement of the liver and spleen. Also called erythroblastosis fetalis.
hormonal contraception
Use of hormones to block ovulation and prevent contraception.
hormonal contraception
May be in the form of a pill, a patch, an implant under the skin, or injection.
hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
Menopause or the surgical loss of the ovaries results in the lack of estrogen production; replacing this estrogen with an oral medication prevents some of the consequences of menopause, especially in younger women who have surgically lost their ovaries.
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Virus that causes AIDS
retrovirus
virus that causes AIDS
hydrocele
Accumulation of fluid within the testes.
hymen
thin membranous tissue that covers the external vaginal opening or orifice.
hymen
membrane is broken during the first sexual encounter of the female.
hymen
this can also be broken prematurely by the use of tampons or during some sports activities.
hymenectomy
Surgical removal of the hymen, performed when the hymen tissue is particularly tough
hypospadias
Congenital opening of the male urethra on the underside of the penis.
hysterectomy
Removal of the uterus.
hysteropexy
Surgical fixation of the uterus.
hysterorrhexis
Rupture of the uterus.
hysterosalpingography
Process of taking an X-ray of the uterus and oviducts after a radiopaque material is injected into the organs.
identical twins
Twins that develop from the splitting of one fertilized ovum; these siblings have identical DNA.
impotence
Inability to copulate due to inability to maintain an erection; also called erectile dysfunction.
infertility
Inability to produce children; generally defined as no pregnancy after properly timed intercourse for 1 year.
intrauterine device (IUD)
Device that is inserted into the uterus by a physician for the purpose of contraception.
labia majora
fold of skin that serves as protection for the female external genitalia and urethral meatus.
labia minora
fold of skin that serves as protection for the female external genitalia and urethral meatus.
labor
period of time beginning with uterine contractions and ending with the birth of the baby.
lactic
pertaining to milk
lactiferous ducts
Carries milk from the mild-producing glands to the nipple.
lactiferous glands
Milk-producing glands in the breast.
lactorrhea
Discharge of milk.
laparoscopy
An instrument or scope is passed into the abdominal wall through a small incision.
laparoscopy
Also called peritoneoscopy.
peritoneoscopy
abdominal cavity examined for tumors and other conditions with this lighted instrument.
laparotomy
Incision into the abdomen.
lumpectomy
Excision of only a breast tumor and the tissue immediately surrounding it.
luteinizing hormone (LH)
hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary, regulates function of male and female gonads and plays a role in releasing ova in females.
mammary
pertaining to the breast
mammography
Process of X-raying the breast.
mammoplasty
Surgical repair of the breast.
mastalgia
breast pain
mastitis
Inflammation of the breast, which is common during lactation but can occur at any age.
menometrorrhagia
Excessive bleeding during the menstrual period and at intervals between menstrual periods.
menopause
Cessation or ending of menstrual activity. This is generally between the ages of 40 and 55.
menorrhagia
Excessive bleeding during the menstrual period. Can be either in the total number of days or the amount of blood or both.
menstrual period
Another name for the menstrual cycle.
menstruation
The loss of blood and tissue as the endometrium in shed by the uterus. The flow exits the body through the cervix and vagina. The flow occurs approximately every 28 days.
metrorrhagia
Rapid (menstrual) blood flow from the uterus.
metrorrhea
Discharge from the uterus.
multigravida
Woman who has had more than one pregnancy.
multipara
Woman who has given birth to more than one child.
myometrium
The middle muscle layer of the uterus.
neonate
Term used to describe the newborn infant during the first 4 weeks of life.
neonatology
Study of the newborn.
nipple
Point at which milk is released from the breast.
nulligravida
Woman who has never been pregnant.
nullipara
Woman who has never produced a viable baby.
obstetrics (OB)
Branch of medicine that treats women during pregnancy and childbirth, and immediately after childbirth.
oligomenorrhea
Scanty menstrual flow.
oligospermia
having sperm
oophorectomy
removal of ovary
oophoritis
Inflammation of an ovary.
oral contraceptive pills (OCPs)
Birth control medication that uses low doses of female hormones to prevent conception by blocking ovulation.
orchidectomy
Excision of the testes.
orchidopexy
Surgical fixation to move undescended testes into the scrotum and attaching to prevent retraction.
orchiectomy
Surgical removal of the testes.
orchioplasty
orchioplasty
orchiotomy
Incision into the testes.
ova
female sex cell or gamete produced in the ovary, ovum fuses with a sperm to produce an embryo. Singular is ovum.
ovarian cyst
Sac that develops within the ovary.
ovaries
responsible for the production of the sex cells, ova, and the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
ovaries
female gonads.
ovaries
two glands located on either side of the lower abdominopelvic region of the female.
oviducts
Tubes that carry the ovum from the ovary to the uterus; also called fallopian tubes or uterine tubes.
ovulation
release of an ovum from the ovary.
oxytocin
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary, stimulates uterine contractions during labor and delivery.
parturition
childbirth
pelvic examination
Physical examination of the vagina and adjacent organs performed by a physician placing the fingers of one hand into the vagina. A visual examination is performed using a speculum.
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
Any inflammation of the female reproductive organs, generally bacterial in nature.
pelvic ultrasonography
Use of ultrasound waves to produce an image or photograph of an organ, such as the uterus, ovaries, or fetus.
pelvimetry
Measurement of the pelvic area, which helps in determining if the fetus can be delivered vaginally.
penis
male sex organ, composed of erectile tissue that becomes erect during sexual stimulation, allowing it to be placed within the female vagina for ejaculation of semen.
perimetritis
Inflammation around the uterus.
perimetrium
outer layer of the uterus.
perineum
In the male, the external region between the scrotum and anus.
perineum
In the female, the external region between the vagina and anus.
phimosis
Narrowing of the foreskin over the glans penis that results in difficulty with hygiene, can lead to infection or difficulty with urination, treated with circumcision.
Cowper's Gland
two small male reproductive system glands located on either side of the urethra just distal to the prostate.
Cowper's Gland
secretion from these glands neutralizes the acidity in the urethra and the vagina.
dilation stage
uterine contractions that press the fetus against the cervix causing it to dilate to 10 cm and become thin.