parasitic microorganism causing genital infections in males and females can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease in females
Puncturing of the amniotic sac using a needle and syringe for the purpose of withdrawing amniotic fluid for testing.
Replacement male hormones to treat patients who produce insufficient hormone naturally.
While the uterus is normally in this position, an exaggeration of the forward bend of the uterus is abnormal. The forward bend is near the neck of the uterus. The position of cervix, or opening of the uterus, remains normal.
Medications to treat early cases of benign prostatic hypertrophy; may prevent surgery for mild cases.
Prevention of a pregnancy using a device to prevent sperm from meeting an ovum; examples include condoms, diaphragms, and cervical caps.
Glands located on either side of the vaginal opening that secrete mucus for vaginal lubrication.
benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)
Enlargement of the prostate gland commonly seen in males over 50.
Malignant tumor of the breast; usually forms in the milk-producing gland tissue or the lining of the milk ducts.
Placement of the fetus in which the buttocks or feet are presented first for delivery rather than the head.
two small male reproductive system glands located on either side of the urethra distal to the prostate, secretion neutralizes the acidity in the urethra and the vagina.
Yeast-like infection of the skin and mucous membranes that can result in white plaques on the tongue and vagina.
Destruction of tissue using an electric current, a caustic product, or a hot iron, or by freezing.
Malignant growth in the cervix. An especially difficult type of cancer to treat, it causes 5% of the cancer deaths in women. PAP tests have helped to detect early cervical cancer.
cesarean section (CS, C-section)
Surgical delivery of a baby through an incision into the abdominal and uterine walls. Legend has it that the Roman emperor Julius Caesar was the first person born by this method.
Parasitic microorganism causing genital infections in males and females; can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease in females and eventual infertility.
Rare type of cancer of the uterus. May occur following a normal pregnancy or abortion.
chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
Removal of a small piece of the chorion for genetic analysis; may be done at an earlier stage of pregnancy than amniocentesis.
Surgical removal of the end of the prepuce or foreskin of the penis. Generally performed on the newborn male at the request of the parents for ease of hygiene or ritual practice in some religions.
A small organ containing erectile tissue that is covered by the labia minora. It contains sensitive tissue that is aroused during sexual stimulation and is similar to the penis in the male.
A thin fluid first secreted by the breast after delivery; it does not contain much protein, but is rich in antibodies.
Visual examination of the cervix and vagina using a colposcope or instrument with a magnifying lens.
Surgical removal of a core of cervical tissue. Also refers to partial removal of the cervix.
When the head of the baby is visible through the vaginal opening. A sign that birth is imminent.
Failure of the testes to descend into the scrotal sac before birth. Generally, the testes will descend before the boy is one year old. A surgical procedure called orchidopexy may be required to bring the testes down into the scrotum permanently. Failure of the testes to descend could result in sterility in the male.
Examination of the female pelvic cavity by introducing an endoscope through the wall of the vagina.
Hernia or outpouching of the bladder that protrudes into the vagina, may cause urinary frequency and urgency.
digital rectal exam (DRE)
Manual examination for an enlarged prostate gland performed by palpating (feeling)the prostate gland through the wall of the rectum.
dilation and curettage (D & C)
Surgical procedure in which the opening of the cervix is dilated and the uterus is scrapped or suctioned of its lining or tissue. Often performed after a spontaneous abortion and to stop excessive bleeding from other causes.
Convulsive seizures and coma that can occur in a woman between the 20th week of pregnancy and the first week of postpartum. Often associated with hypertension.
Taking a sample of tissue from the lining of the uterus to test for abnormalities.
Abnormal condition of endometrium tissue appearing throughout the pelvis or on the abdominal wall.
The inner lining of the uterus. It contains a rich blood supply and reacts to hormonal changes every month, which results in menstruation. During a pregnancy, the lining of the uterus does not leave the body but remains to nourish the unborn child.
Surgical incision of the perineum to facilitate the delivery process to prevent an irregular tearing of tissue during birth.
erectile dysfunction (ED)
Inability to copulate due to inability to maintain an erection; also called impotence.
erectile dysfunction agents
Medication that temporarily produces an erection in patients with erectile dysfunction.
One of the hormones produced by the ovaries. It works with progesterone to control the menstrual cycle and it is responsible for producing the secondary sexual characteristics.
Organ in the female reproductive system that transports eggs from the ovary to the uterus.
Using electronic equipment placed on the mother's abdomen to check the baby's heart rate and strength during labor.
fingerlike extensions on the end of the fallopian tubes, drape over each ovary in order to direct the ovum into the fallopian tube after it is expelled by the ovary.
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
hormone secreted by anterior pituitary gland. It stimulates growth of eggs in females and sperm in males.
Twins that develop from two different ova fertilized by two different sperm; although twins, these siblings do not have identical DNA.
Evaluation of parents' potential for producing a child with a genetic disease; especially important for families with a history of genetic diseases.
Creeping skin disease that can appear like a blister or vesicle, caused by a sexually transmitted virus.
Growths and elevations of warts on the genitalia of both males and females that can lead to cancer of the cervix in females.
Referring to the organs of the urinary system and the female or male sexual organs.
Length of time from conception to birth, generally nine months. Calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period, with a range of from 259 days to 280 days.
physician specialized in treating conditions and diseases of the female reproductive system.
hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)
Condition in which antibodies in the mother's blood enter the fetus's blood and cause anemia, jaundice, edema, and enlargement of the liver and spleen. Also called erythroblastosis fetalis.
May be in the form of a pill, a patch, an implant under the skin, or injection.
hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
Menopause or the surgical loss of the ovaries results in the lack of estrogen production; replacing this estrogen with an oral medication prevents some of the consequences of menopause, especially in younger women who have surgically lost their ovaries.
Process of taking an X-ray of the uterus and oviducts after a radiopaque material is injected into the organs.
Twins that develop from the splitting of one fertilized ovum; these siblings have identical DNA.
Inability to copulate due to inability to maintain an erection; also called erectile dysfunction.
Inability to produce children; generally defined as no pregnancy after properly timed intercourse for 1 year.
intrauterine device (IUD)
Device that is inserted into the uterus by a physician for the purpose of contraception.
fold of skin that serves as protection for the female external genitalia and urethral meatus.
fold of skin that serves as protection for the female external genitalia and urethral meatus.
abdominal cavity examined for tumors and other conditions with this lighted instrument.
luteinizing hormone (LH)
hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary, regulates function of male and female gonads and plays a role in releasing ova in females.
Excessive bleeding during the menstrual period and at intervals between menstrual periods.
Cessation or ending of menstrual activity. This is generally between the ages of 40 and 55.
Excessive bleeding during the menstrual period. Can be either in the total number of days or the amount of blood or both.
The loss of blood and tissue as the endometrium in shed by the uterus. The flow exits the body through the cervix and vagina. The flow occurs approximately every 28 days.
Branch of medicine that treats women during pregnancy and childbirth, and immediately after childbirth.
oral contraceptive pills (OCPs)
Birth control medication that uses low doses of female hormones to prevent conception by blocking ovulation.
Surgical fixation to move undescended testes into the scrotum and attaching to prevent retraction.
female sex cell or gamete produced in the ovary, ovum fuses with a sperm to produce an embryo. Singular is ovum.
responsible for the production of the sex cells, ova, and the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
Tubes that carry the ovum from the ovary to the uterus; also called fallopian tubes or uterine tubes.
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary, stimulates uterine contractions during labor and delivery.
Physical examination of the vagina and adjacent organs performed by a physician placing the fingers of one hand into the vagina. A visual examination is performed using a speculum.
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
Any inflammation of the female reproductive organs, generally bacterial in nature.
Use of ultrasound waves to produce an image or photograph of an organ, such as the uterus, ovaries, or fetus.
Measurement of the pelvic area, which helps in determining if the fetus can be delivered vaginally.
male sex organ, composed of erectile tissue that becomes erect during sexual stimulation, allowing it to be placed within the female vagina for ejaculation of semen.
Narrowing of the foreskin over the glans penis that results in difficulty with hygiene, can lead to infection or difficulty with urination, treated with circumcision.
two small male reproductive system glands located on either side of the urethra just distal to the prostate.