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The two basic kinds of inequity are ____.

underreward and overreward

The three components of ____ are initiation of effort, direction of effort, and persistence of effort.


A ____ is a target, objective, or result.


How do employees try to restore equity when they perceive that they have been treated unfairly?

by doing any of these

In a(n) ____ reinforcement schedule, consequences follow a behavior after different times, some shorter and some longer, that vary around a specified average time.

variable interval

For goal-setting theory to motivate employees, managers must provide frequent, specific, performance-related feedback.


A glass of water and shelter from a snowstorm would be examples of ____, and a gold necklace and tickets to see professional wrestling would not be.

low-order needs

____ is the extent to which people consciously understand and agree to goals.

Goal acceptance

According to expectancy theory, in order for people to be highly motivated, ____ must be high.


The ____ states that people will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance, that good performance will be rewarded, and that they are offered attractive rewards.

expectancy theory

In expectancy theory, ____ is the perceived relationship between effort and performance.


In a(n) ____ reinforcement schedule, consequences follow a behavior only after a fixed time has elapsed.

fixed interval

Managers can motivate employees to increase their efforts by ____.

asking employees what their needs are then matching rewards to those needs

Which of the following statements about needs is true?

Higher-order needs will generally not motivate people as long as lower-order needs remain unsatisfied.

The four kinds of reinforcement contingencies are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction.


____ are the cause-and-effect relationships between the performance of specific behaviors and specific consequences.

Reinforcement contingencies

Reinforcement theory says behavior is a function of ____.

its consequences

Needs are defined in the text as the physical requirements that must be met to ensure survival.


According to Alderfer's ERG theory, the lowest-order need is ____.


Which of the following is a basic component of equity theory?


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