(1769-1821) French general who became emperor of the French. Overthrew French Directory in the coup d'etat of 1799. Issued the Constitution of the Year VIII, which, even with its democratic cover, system of checks and balances, and three established consuls in which executive authority was to be divided, granted Napoleon dominant power as the First Consul. Established a concordat with the church as well as the Napoleonic Code. Became emperor of the French in 1804. Lead a series of military victories against the various coalitions. Failed to defeat Great Britain and was abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.