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52 terms

Chapter 9

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Overtraining
Physical state of staleness, tiredness, and even deconditioning caused by too much training and too little recovery, possibly exacerbated by inadequate nutrition
Plyometrics
A strength training method characterized by a rapid stretch of the muscle prior to contraction
Anaerobic threshold
The level of exercise intensity at which anaerobic energy production becomes necessary and lactic acid begins to accumulate in the muscle
Immediate energy system
A system that releases energy stored in creatine phosphate for rapid maximal muscle contraction of very short duration
Anerobic glycolysis
The process that splits glucose into pyruvate and releases energy to ATP and NADH
Aerobic metabolism
A series of processes that begins with the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, proceeds to the critic acid cycle, and ends with the electron transport chain;Aerobic metabolism produces NADH, H+, FADH2, ATP, CO2, and water, and requires oxygen as the final electron acceptor
inorganic phosphate (P1)
Simple phosphate groups incorporated into ATP and other molecules and then released in order to transfer energy
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
High energy chemical compound used to transfer energy from nutrients to various life processes
Creatine phosphate (CP)
High-energy chemical compound used to store and transfer high energy electrons released from nutrients asa they are metabolized to ATP
Flavin adenine Dinucleotide (FAD)
An intermediary, formed from the vitamin riboflavin, that transfers high-energy electrons released from nutrients as they are metabolized to ATP
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD*)
An intermediary, formed from the vitamin niacin that transfers high-energy electrons released from nutrients as they are metabolized to ATP
Niacin
A B-vitamin used as the basis of NAD*
Riboflavin
A B-vitamin used as the basis of FAD
Lactate (lactic acid)
A three-carbon molecule formed from pyruvate. Excess lactate shuttled to the liver to be converted back to glucose via the Cori cycle
Cori cycle
The process by which accumulated lactate is shuttled to the liver to be converted back to glucose and returned to muscle. The Cori cycle provides a means to deal with the pyruvate that accumulates during anaerobic glycolysis
Pyruvate (Pyruvic Acid)
A three-carboon molecule formed from glucose in anaerobic glycolysis
Coenzyme A
A compound formed from the B-vitamin pantothenic acid that is combined with pyruvate to create acetyl CoA, which then enters the critic acid cycle
Pantothenic acid
A B-vitamin used to form coenzyme A, which activates pyruvate for entry into the citric acid cycle
Acetyl CoA
Formed from pyruvate and coenzyme A;l acetyl CoA allows pyruvate to enter the citric acid cycle
Citric acid cycle
The pathway by which acetyl CoA combine with oxaloacetate and thorougha series of reactions yields NADH, H*, FADH2, ATP, CO2, and, finally returns to oxoaloacetate, ready to start the cycle again with another acetyl CoA
Krebs cycle
See citric acid cycle
tCA
see citric acid cycle
Oxaloacetate
A four-carbon comound that begins and ends the critic acid cycle; reacts with acetyl CoA to begin the cycle
Citric Acid
The six-carbon compound that is the product of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA in the citric acid cycle
Electron Transport chain
A series of carrier molecules that transfers the high energy electrons of NADH and FADH along to ATP; their energy is stored in ATP's phosphate bonds are passed to oxygen so that they combine with hydrogen to form water
Gluconeogenesis
The process by which the amino group is removed from amino acids and they are converted to glucose
Mitochondria
The cell structure where most of the reactions in the aerobic production of energy from fat, carbohydrate, and protein take place
Carnitine
A compound formed from amino acids which shuttles activated fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane into the mitochondria for the beta-oxidation
Beta-oxidation
The process by which fatty acids are metabolized, in which they are shortened two carbons at a time and combined with coenzyme A to form acetyl Co for entry into the citric acid cycle
Ketone bodies
Compounds that are produced when fat is used for energy because insufficient dietary, oxaloacetate cannot be replenished and acetyl CoA from fat cannot enter the citric acid cycle. The excess acetyl CoA is converted into ketone bodies
Carbon skeletons
The carbon framework of an amino acids
Glucogenic
Amino acids which are made into pyruvate and then into glucose through gluconeogenesis
Ketogenic
Amino acids which are made into acetyl CoA for entry into the citric acid cycle, nut which cannot be used in fluconeogenesis to make glucose
Intracellular
Inside cells
Myoglobin
A protein of muscle, similar to hemoglobin, that participates in the transfer of oxygen from the blood to the muscle cells for use in energy production
Collagen
The primary protein found in connective tissue
Scurvy
The disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin C
Free Radical
A highly reactive species of oxygen or other substance capable of damaging cell components and contributing to cancer and heart disease
Hemolysis
A breakdown of red blood cells
Glutathione peroxidase
A group of antioxidant enzymes
Erythropoiesis
Synthesis of red blood cells
Erythrocytes
Red blood cells
Anemia
The condition of having inadequate red blood cells to transport sufficient amounts of oxygen
Macrocytic
A type of anemia in which red blood cells are too big, caused by folic acid deficiency
Microcytic
A type of anemia in which red blood cells are too small, caused by iron deficiency
Thiamin
A B-vitamin used as the basis of TPP
Thiamin pyrophosphate
A coenzyme which helps convert pyruvate to acetyl CoA and participates in the critic acid cycle
Electrolyte
An atom which carries an electrical charge because of loss or gain of electrons and is found dissolved in fluid
Hyponatremia
The condition of having a low concentration of sodium in the blood
Hypokalemia
The condition of having a low concentration of potassium in the blood
Isotonic
A fluid with solute concentrations equal to those found in body fluids
Hypertronic
A fluid with solute concentrations greater than those found in body fluids