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expands and contracts to focus objects.


clear protective covering of the eye.


colored aperture which regulates size of pupil.


inside lining of the eye that contains photoreceptors cells.


point of highest concentration of cones and rods.


opening of the eye through which light passes.

Optic Nerve

afferent neural pathway to visual cortex.

Ciliary Muscles

regulates the shape of the lens.

Additive Color

Mixing wavelengths of light increases color.


stated that there were cones for blue,red, & green.

Gate Control Theory

explains the workings of the neural networks for pain.

Place Theory

location in the basiliar membrane makes sound.

Vestibular Sense

how one is able to remain balanced.

Subtractive Coloring

remove wavelengths by mixing colors.

Sensory Adaptation

loss of sensitivity of receptors due to exposure.

Frequency Theory

frequency of vibrations creates sound.

Weber's Law

difference threshold.


vision impairment from having one or no types of cones.

Law of Pragnaz

the tendency to see objects in their simplest form.


filling in the missing parts to create a compete object.

Textual Gradient

the closer the object the greater detail that is seen.

Size Constancy

objects remain their size and shape regardless of the size of proximal image.

Visual Capture

the dominance of vision over the other senses.

Retinal Disparity

the brain process of detecting differences in images to produce depth.

Figure Ground

the process of seeing an object against a background.

Light & Shadow

depth cue related to the intensity of light shown upon an object.

Dichotic Listening

a common test used for analyzing selective attention in subjects.


the ability to detect distance/depth by the amount we look inward.

Relative Motion

distance cue related to speed of passing objects.

Autokinetic Effect

the apparent movement of a dot of light in a completely dark room.


depth cue requiring the use of only one eye.

Perceptual Set

schemas, experiences and contextual clues that change our perception of stimuli.


depth cue related to one object blocking the view of another object.


objects that are close to each other are perceived to be together.


a term in perception which means 'wholeness'.

Phi Phenomenon

apparent movement caused bus switching lights on and off in sequence.

Visual Cliff

a laboratory device for testing depth perception.

Extrasensory Perception

perception occurring apart from sensory input

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