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A form of communication using stems and leaves instead of air to carry the vibrational signals. Membracids produce many different "sounds" for many different purposes including warning calls when a predator approaches. Songs are used for mate attraction and communication between the female and her young.
The relationship between ants and treehoppers is mutualistic because ants help treehoppers by removing honeydew before mold has a chance to grow and the ants receive a tasty, nutrient-rich drop of food to eat. Some ants actively protect their treehopper herds by attacking predators or even moving them to safer feeding spots or into specially built structures around the host plant stem.
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