217 terms

Psychology Module #4

Chapter 13-16
An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
Individual Differences
Differences in personality from one person to another
Intrapersonal Functioning
Psychological processes that take place within the person
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
The first comprehensive theory of personality, included ideas about the unconscious mind, psychosexual stages, and defense mechanisms
Free Association
A method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind
Preconscious Area
We can retrieve them into conscious awareness; contents are easily brought to current awareness
Unconscious Area
Elements of the mind that are actively kept from consciousness, anything caused by anxiety, we want to keep away
Forcibly block from our consciousness because it would be too unsettling to acknowledge
Strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives- to survive, reproduce, and aggress
The young child learns to cope with the real world
Begins around age 4 or 5, forces the ego to consider the real and ideal, focuses on how one should behave
"I'm only doing it once, blah blah"- Shutting your ego and superego up and satisfying your Id; When we consciously generate self-justifying explanations to hide from ourselves the real reasons for our actions
Oral (0-18 months)
Pleasure centers on the mouth- sucking, biting, and chewing
Anal (18-36 months)
Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands of control- Potty training
Phallic (3-6 years)
Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings
Latency (6-puberty)
Dormant sexual feelings
Genital (Puberty on)
Maturation of sexual interests
Oedipus Complex
Boys develop unconscious desires for their mother and jealousy for their father
Identification Process
children incorporate their parents values into their developing superegos
Gender identity
Our sense of being male or female
Refers to when a person is "stuck" in one stage of psychosexual development
Defense Mechanisms
The ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
We have memories, impulses, desires, and thoughts that are too difficult or unacceptable to deal with, we unconsciously exclude them from our consciousness
There are times when people are faced with situations that are so anxiety provoking that they can't deal with it and they protect themselves by retreating to an earlier stage of development
Reaction Formation
An individual acts in a manner opposite from his or her unconscious beliefs
When someone is threatened by or afraid of their own impulses so they attribute these impulses to someone else
Diverts sexual or aggressive impulses toward an object or person that is psychologically more acceptable that the one that aroused the feelings
Projective Tests
Personality tests that provide ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about the pictures their shown
Rorscach Inkblot Test
It seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
reliability; validity
Projective tests lack __________ (consistency of results) and __________ (predicting what it is supposed to)
Abraham Maslow & Carl Rogers
Who are the humanists?
All of our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "who am I?"
Unconditional Positive Regard
Carl Rogers; is an attitude of acceptance of others despite their failings, when one person is completely accepting toward another person
The Trait/Dispositional Perspective
An individual's unique constellation of durable dispositions and consistent ways of behaving (traits) constitutes his or her personality
Personality Inventories
Questionnaires (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors assessing several traits at once
"this is extremely like you, never like you, etc" tests
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
A test that detects abnormal personality styles
"Big Five" Personality Factors
C: Consciousness
A: Agreeableness
N: Neuroticism
O: Openness
E: Extraversion
The Person-Situation Controversy
Walter Mischel points out that traits may be enduring, but the resulting behavior in various situations is different
Social-Cognitive Perspective
Bandura; Believes that personality is the result of an interaction that takes place between a person and their social context
Reciprocal Determinism
The interacting influences between personality and environmental factors
Personal Control
Our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless
External Locus of Control
Perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine fate
Internal Locus of Control
Perception that one controls one's own fate
Learned Helplessness
The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated and aversive events
Positive psychology
Seeks positive subjective well-being, positive character, and positive social groups
Spotlight Effect
Overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders
Self-Serving Bias
Our readiness to perceive ourselves favorable
Terror Management Theory
Proposes their faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death
False Consensus Effect
The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
Psychological Disorder
If a behavior is deviant, distressful, dysfunctional, it is a _________________
Philippe Pinel
Insisted that madness was not due to demonic possession, but an ailment of the mind
Cause and development of the disorder
Identifying symptoms and distinguishing one disease from another
Treating a disorder in a psychiatric hospital
Forecast about the disorder; Are they going to get better or worse?
Bio psychosocial (TEST)
Psychological disorders have a biological (genes and brain structure), psychological, and social-cultural
Clinical Syndrome (cognitive, anxiety, mood disorders): Schizophrenia, Depression
Axis I
Personality Disorder or Mental Retardation
Axis II
General Medical Condition: Diabetes, hypertension, arthritis (could be symptoms of depression)
Axis III
Psychosocial or Environment Problems (school or housing issues): Mild problems with spouse
Axis IV
Global Assessment
Axis V
Major Depressive Disorder
Occurs when signs of depression last two weeks or more and are not caused by drugs or medical conditions
Bipolar Disorder
Formerly called manic-depressive disorder. An alteration between depression and mania signals bipolar disorder
'Care of the soul'
Maltreatment of the insane was the result of irrational views
Philippe Pinel and Dorthea Dix
Who founded humane movements to care for the mentally sick?
Involved an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and a patient/client (psychologist)
Biomedical Therapy
Uses drugs or other procedures that act on the patient's nervous system, treating his or her psychological disorders (psychiatrist)
Eclectic Approach
Uses various forms of healing techniques depending upon the client's unique problems
Psychoanalytic Theory
(Freud) To bring repressed feelings into conscious awareness where the patient can deal with them; When energy devoted to id-ego-superego conflicts is released, the patients anxiety lessons
Free association
Patient edits his thoughts, resisting his or her feelings to express emotions
The patient is trying to prevent certain information coming from their unconscious
Eventually the patient opens up and reveals their innermost private thoughts, developing positive or negative feelings towards the therapist
Psychodynamic Theory
(Freud) Emphasizes the unconscious components such as conflicts, instinctual energies
Interpersonal Psychotherapy
Effective in treating depression, focuses on symptom relief; Ex: You're depressed because relationships have gone bad
Humanistic Theory
Aim to boost self-fulfillment by helping people grow in self awareness and self-acceptance
Client-Centered Therapy
(Carl Rogers)- Active listening to the needs of the patient in an accepting and non-judgmental way, building his or her self-esteem
Genuine, apathetic, unconditional positive regard
What are the three essentials of client-centered therapy?
Behavioral Theory
Theory that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
A procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors
Systematic Desensitization
Develop a hierarchy of anxieties, we pair a relaxation response with your anxiety to treat phobias
Behavior Modification
In which desired behaviors are rewarded and undesired behaviors are unrewarded or punished
Cognitive Theory
Teach people adaptive ways of thinking on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
A: Activating Effect
B: Belief
C: Consequence
What's the ABC in cognitive theory?
Beck cognitive therapy for Depression
What therapy involves cognitions such as "I can never be happy" need to change in order for depressed patients to recover
Gestalt/Existential Therapies
Come from philosophical theories, concerned with man conscious experience in the here and now, they're born with tension because they're lacking something
Which psychologist in the videos is most directive?
Practice/Psychotherapy (TEST)
What is the most effective therapy?
Social Psychology
How we think about, influence, and relate to one another
Social Thinking
Involves thinking about others, especially when they engage in doing things that are unexpected
Attribution Theory
Fritz Heider; Suggested that we have a tendency to give casual explanations for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to overestimate the impact of personal disposition and underestimate the impact of the situations in analyzing the behaviors
A belief and feeling that predisposes a person to respond in a particular way to objects, other people, and events
He took a Chinese couple out to a 100 different restaurants and hotels and wanted to see if anyone would turn them down because La Piere was with a Chinese couple
What experiment did La Piere do?
Can actions affect attitudes?
Cognitive Dissonance
When out attitudes and actions are opposed, we experience tension
Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
Assigned the roles of guards and prisoners to random students and found that guards and prisoners developed role-appropriate attitudes
What experiment did Zimbardo do?
The role of repressed childhood conflicts in personality disorders is most clearly emphasized by the ________ perspective
Weak Ego
Jaydon doesn't realize that his alcohol abuse and neglect of his family is leading to the destruction of both his family and career. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Jaydon shows signs of a-
Oral Fixation
Freud suggested that adults with a passive personality marked by a childlike dependency demonstrate signs of-
Reaction Formation
Bryce often acts so daring and overly confident that few people realize he is actually riddled with unconscious insecurity and self-doubt. Bryce best illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as-
The Collective Unconscious
Carl Jung emphasized the importance of ________ in personality functioning
Hermann Rorschach introduced what has become the most widely used ________ test
Abraham Maslow suggested that individuals who are open, spontaneous, and not paralyzed by others' opinions illustrate-
A positive self-concept
Humanistic psychology has been most closely associated with an emphasis on the importance of-
Factor Analysis
Which technique would psychologists use to assess whether a cluster of characteristics that includes ambition, determination, persistence, and self-reliance reflects a single personality trait?
The Barnum Effect
During a phone call to the Psychic Network, Mark was told that "you often worry about things much more than you admit, even to your best friends." Mark's amazement at the psychic's apparent understanding of his personality best illustrates-
Reciprocal Determinism
Sarah's optimism is both a contributor to and a product of her successful career accomplishments. This best illustrates-
External Locus of Control
Marcy believes that the outcome of athletic contests depends so much on luck that it hardly pays to put any effort into her own athletic training. Her belief most clearly illustrates-
A pessimistic attributional style
Although she is intelligent and a good athlete, Abigail believes that her low grades in school and losing the quarter-mile race are reflections of her own intellectual and athletic incompetence. Her conclusion best illustrates-
Spotlight Effect
When Vanessa noticed that she was wearing mismatched socks, she overestimated the extent to which others would also notice. Her reaction best illustrates-
Unconscious Wishes
Freud thought that the part of a dream that we remember is a censored version of-
Weak Superego
Although Alex has frequently been caught stealing money and other valuables from friends as well as strangers, he does not feel guilty or remorseful about robbing these people. Alex most clearly demonstrates a-
The Oedipus Complex
According to psychoanalytic theory, boys' fear of castration is most closely associated with-
Bonnie is afraid to express anger at her overbearing and irritating supervisor at work, so she is critical of her children instead. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Bonnie's reaction to her children illustrates-
Children who have witnessed a parent's murder report memories that most clearly challenge Freud's concept of-
According to Maslow, the desire for identity, meaning, and purpose beyond the self refers to the motive for-
Carl Rogers
Who emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard in healthy personality development?
Emotional Disorders
The MMPI was originally developed to identify-
The Big Five
Around the world, people describe others' personality traits in terms that are consistent with a set of factors called-
The Trait Perspective
The stability of personality during adulthood best illustrates the value of-
Situational Influences
We can better predict drivers' behavior at traffic lights from knowing the color of the lights than from knowing the drivers' personalities. This best illustrates the importance of-
Reciprocal Determinism
The social-cognitive perspective highlights the importance of personal traits and environment, a process that Albert Bandura called-
Learned Helplessness
After experiencing prolonged and seemingly inescapable physical abuse from her husband, Kayla became increasingly depressed and hopelessly resigned to her suffering. Her reaction best illustrates-
Unrealistic Optimism
Students perceive themselves as less likely than the average classmate to develop drinking problems or drop out of school. This best illustrates-
Self-Serving Bias
Card players who attribute their wins to their own skill and their losses to bad luck best illustrate-
The Medical Model
At one time, disordered people were simply warehoused in asylums. These were replaced with psychiatric hospitals in which attempts were made to diagnose and cure those with psychological disorders. This best illustrates one of the beneficial consequences of-
A current authoritative scheme for classifying psychological disorders is known as the-
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Lenore is unexplainably and continually tense and is plagued by muscle tension, sleeplessness, and an inability to concentrate. Lenore most likely suffers from-
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Years after he barely survived a terrorist attack that killed his wife and two children, Mr. Puskari suffers recurring flashbacks and frequent nightmares of the event that render him incapable of holding a steady job. Mr. Puskari is most clearly showing signs of-
Andrea experiences extreme anxiety when approaching any lake. Her therapist suggests that her fear results from a traumatic boat accident she experienced as a child. The therapist's suggestion reflects a ________ perspective.
Jeremy often misinterprets normal bodily sensations such as hunger pangs as symptoms of serious illnesses such as stomach cancer. His experience is most indicative of-
A dissociative disorder
A sudden loss of memory is a symptom of-
A mood disorder
Elaine feels that her life is empty, has lost all interest in her career and hobbies, and wonders if she would be better off dead. She is most likely suffering from-
A manic episode
An overabundance of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine is most likely to be associated with-
Mr. James believes that people are constantly laughing at him and that FBI agents are trying to steal his life savings. Mr. James is most clearly suffering from-
Social withdrawal
What best illustrates a negative symptom of schizophrenia?
Periods of immobility or excessive, purposeless movement
Catatonia is characterized by-
Therapeutic drugs that block dopamine receptors are most likely to reduce-
Viral infections
The relationship between the season of the year in which people are born and their subsequent risk of schizophrenia best highlights the role of ________ in this disorder
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Kyle is extremely manipulative and can look anyone in the eye and lie convincingly. His deceit often endangers the safety and well-being of those around him, but he is indifferent to any suffering they might experience as a result of his actions. His behavior best illustrates-
Brian often interrupts his teacher while she is speaking and frequently forgets to complete his homework assignments. He also has difficulty taking turns in playground games with classmates. Brian most clearly exhibits symptoms of-
Biopsychosocial Approach
An integrated understanding of psychological disorders in terms of stressful memories, evolutionary processes, and gender roles is most clearly provided by-
Biasing power of diagnostic labels
After participants in one study were informed that a videotaped interviewee was a psychiatric patient, they characterized the person with phrases such as "a passive, dependent type" and "frightened of his own aggressive impulses." This study best illustrated the-
Panic disorders
Symptoms that may be misperceived as a heart attack are most characteristic of-
Although Mark realizes that his behavior is unreasonable, he is so alarmed by high bridges or expressway overpasses that he avoids them by taking an unnecessarily lengthy route to and from work each day. Mark appears to suffer from-
Without success, Maxine spends hours each day trying to suppress intrusive thoughts that she might have forgotten to lock her house when she left for work. Her experience is most symptomatic of-
Conversion Disorder
Which of the following is a somatoform disorder in which a person may appear to be strangely indifferent to his or her physical symptoms?
Psychoanalytic persepective
The suggestion that dissociative identity disorder symptoms are created as defenses against the anxiety caused by one's own unacceptable impulses best illustrates the (what perspective?)-
Mr. Hoffman has always been cautious with his money, but over the past two weeks he has developed grandiose plans to bet his entire life savings on a single horse race. With unrestrained exuberance he has also been giving everybody he sees unsolicited advice on how to make millions in the stock market. Mr. Hoffman's behavior is most indicative of-
Social-Cognitive perspective
Amanda's therapist suggests that her depression results from mistakenly blaming herself rather than a slumping economy for her recent job loss. Her therapist's suggestion best illustrates a-
Mrs. Higgins believes that aliens from another planet have removed her stomach and are watching her to see how long it takes her to grow another one. Mrs. Higgins is most likely suffering from-
Michael complains that threatening voices are constantly telling him that he is so evil he should drown himself. Michael is experiencing-
Oxygen deprivation at the time of birth is a known risk factor for-
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Low levels of anxiety are most characteristic of (what disorder?)-
Symptoms of schizophrenia begin to appear at a median age of about-
A therapist who uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic methods is said to be-
Free Association
While focusing on several intrusive thoughts that had been bothering her recently, Jenny was instructed by her therapist to report any ideas or memories stimulated by these thoughts. Jenny's therapist was making use of a technique known as-
Interpreting the meaning of clients' resistance to therapeutic procedures
Classical psychoanalysts were especially interested in-
Carl Rogers
Who emphasized the importance of active listening in the process of psychotherapy?
Exposure Therapy
A therapist helps Rebecca overcome her fear of water by getting her to swim in the family's backyard pool three times a day for two consecutive weeks. The therapist's approach to helping Rebecca best illustrates-
Exposure therapy
Systematic desensitization is a form of-
Operant Conditioning
In a home for troubled youth, adolescents receive large colored buttons when they hang up their clothes, make their beds, and come to meals on time. The adolescents return the buttons to staff members to receive bedtime snacks or watch TV. This best illustrates an application of-
Emphasize the importance of clients' personal interpretations of life events
Cognitive therapists are most likely to-
Cognitive-behavior Therapy
Nancy's therapist encourages her to think about her strengths rather than her weaknesses and to develop a habit of thanking others when they compliment her or provide emotional support. The therapist's approach best illustrates-
Regression towards the mean
When people's symptoms of psychological distress are at their worst, whatever they do to try to alleviate the condition is likely to be followed by improvement rather than further deterioration. This is best explained in terms of-
Which of the following is LEAST likely to be used for the treatment of depression (EMDR, ECT, SSRIs, rTMs)?
Placebo effect
Because she mistakenly believes that the herbal remedy she is using will help her lose weight, Mrs. Redding is feeling a considerable reduction in her appetite. This best illustrates-
Drug therapies
The double-blind technique is most likely to be used in evaluating the effectiveness of (which therapy?)-
Tardive dykinesia is associated with the long-term use of certain ________ drugs.
Miranda, who experiences periods of extreme sadness followed by episodes of optimistic overexcitement
Which of the following individuals is most likely to benefit from lithium (delusions, anxiety, sadness/mania, episodes of dread)?
During her weekly therapy sessions, Sabrina will often abruptly shift the focus of her attention and lose her train of thought. A psychoanalyst would suggest that this illustrates-
Sigmund Freud
Who emphasized the importance of transference in the therapeutic process?
Enabling clients to feel unconditionally accepted
Client-centered therapists emphasize the importance of-
Systematic desensitization
To help Adam reduce his fear of dogs, a therapist encourages him to physically relax and then simply imagine that he is walking toward a friendly and harmless little dog. The therapist's technique best illustrates-
Aversive conditioning
To help Janet overcome her nearly irresistible craving for chocolate, a therapist provides her with a supply of chocolate candies that contain solidified droplets of a harmless but very bitter-tasting substance. This approach to treatment best illustrates-
Cognitive therapy
The goal of stress inoculation training is to reduce incapacitating anxiety by encouraging people to say positive things to themselves during anxiety-producing situations. This best illustrates a form of (which therapy?)-
A control group
Many physicians did not realize that bleeding was an ineffective treatment for typhoid fever until researchers made effective use of-
Establish an empathic, caring relationship with their clients
The most effective psychotherapists are those who-
Which of the following drugs (Xanax, Thorazine, Prozac, Lithium) is most likely to provide schizophrenia patients with some relief from their auditory hallucinations and paranoia?
Which of the following is a selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor?
Patients receive a general anesthetic and muscle relaxant prior to treatment with-
If a patient suffers uncontrollable seizures, physicians can destroy specific nerve clusters that cause or transmit the convulsions. This best illustrates a procedure known as-
Considering the greatest range of factors that may contribute to the process of healing is most clearly facilitated by a ________ approach to therapy.
Preventive mental health
Identifying and eliminating the socially stressful conditions that contribute to psychological disorders is of most central interest to the advocates of-
The fundamental attribution error
Marilyn judges her professor's strict class attendance policy to be an indication of his overcontrolling personality rather than a necessity dictated by the limited number of class sessions in a course that meets only once a week. Her judgment best illustrates-
Foot-in-the-door phenomenon
Bart complied with his friends' request to join them in smashing decorative pumpkins early one Halloween evening. Later that night he was surprised by his own failure to resist their pressures to throw eggs at passing police cars. Bart's experience best illustrates the-
Role-playing on attitude change
Cognitive dissonance theory is most helpful for understanding the impact of-
Normative social influence
In making wedding preparations, Jason conforms to the expectations of his future bride's family simply to win their favor. His behavior illustrates the importance of-
Participants in Milgram's obedience experiments were informed that they were involved in a study of-
Social facilitation
Bonnie pedals an exercise bike at her health club much faster when other patrons happen to be working out on nearby equipment. This best illustrates-
Group polarization
When a group of racially prejudiced high school students discussed racial issues, their attitudes became even more prejudiced. This best illustrates-
Ingroup bias
Kelly, a Republican, and Carlos, a Democrat, both believe that members of their own political party are more fair-minded and trustworthy than members of other parties. Their beliefs best illustrate-
The just-world phenomenon
When visiting the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp shortly after World War II, one German civilian was said to have remarked, "What terrible criminals these prisoners must have been to receive such treatment." This reaction is best explained in terms of-
more; more
After extensive exposure to X-rated sexual films, men are subsequently ________ accepting of women's sexual submission to men and _______ likely to perceive a woman's friendliness as sexual interest.
The mere exposure effect
When buying groceries, many shoppers prefer certain products simply because they have a familiar brand name. This preference best illustrates the importance of-
The two-factor theory
Which theory best explains why the excitement that lingers after a frightening event can facilitate passionate love?
The bystander effect
Mr. Hughes heard what sounded like cries for help from a swimmer located 30 yards from the ocean shoreline. He continued walking along the beach, however, because he figured that one of the many swimmers in the vicinity would provide help if it was needed. His reaction best illustrates the dynamics involved in-
Social trap
Max fails to recycle his glass, metal, and plastic garbage because he thinks it's personally inconvenient and likely to have minimal impact on the city's already overflowing landfills. His reaction best illustrates the dynamics of-
Superordinate Goals
The hostilities between two racial subgroups of a riverfront community were dramatically reduced when the threat of their river flooding its banks required that they work together to save their town. This best illustrates the impact of-
The fundamental attribution error
What is underestimating situational constraints on another's behavior?
Cognitive dissonance theory
Professor Stewart wrote a very positive letter of recommendation for a student despite having doubts about her competence. Which theory best explains why he subsequently began to develop more favorable attitudes about the student's abilities?
The chameleon effect
Research participants who worked alongside someone who rubbed his or her face or shook his or her foot were observed to do the same thing themselves. This best illustrated-
Participants are not observed by other group members when giving their answers
Using the Asch procedure, conformity to group judgments would be LEAST likely when-
No others were pulling with them
In a study of social loafing, blindfolded students were asked to pull on a rope as hard as they could. The students tugged hardest when they thought-
Although Frieda is typically very reserved, as part of a huge rock concert crowd she lost her inhibitions and behaved in a very sexually provocative way. Frieda's unusual behavior is best understood in terms of-
Groupthink is fueled by a desire for-
Scapegoat theory
Evidence that people exhibit heightened levels of prejudice when they are economically frustrated offers support for-
Frustration-aggression principle
Shortly after Alex learned that he had failed to make the high school football team, he vandalized the team's locker room and broke several classroom windows. His behavior is best explained in terms of-
Frequency of dating
People's physical attractiveness is a good predictor of their-
Although Natalie receives somewhat greater rewards from her marriage than does her husband, both are satisfied with the relationship because they each benefit in proportion to what they put into it. This best illustrates the significance of-
When Hutu militia began to slaughter the Tutsi in 1994, missionary Carl Wilkens risked his own life to save the lives of others. His actions best illustrated-
The reciprocity norm
After Mrs. Chanski and her children had helped themselves to free samples of the cookies being promoted in the grocery store, she felt obligated to buy some, even though they seemed unreasonably expensive. Her reaction best illustrates the significance of-
Mirror-image perceptions
Although the leaders of two enemy nations admit to a buildup of their own military forces, each sees the other country's actions as unreasonable and motivated by evil intentions. This situation best illustrates-
Initiating one or more small conciliatory acts is a central feature of-