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communication of a blood vessel with another blood vessel by a connecting channel


smaller artery that branches off an artery and connects with a capillary


type of blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart


the narrowing and blockage of the arteries by a buildup of plaque


bacteria traveling within the vascular system


smaller blood vessel that branches off an arteriole to supply blood directly to tissue

carotid pulse

reliable pulse palpated from the common carotid artery


foreign material or thrombus traveling in the blood that can block the vessel


bruise that results when a blood vessel is injured and a small amount of blood escapes into the surrounding tissue and clots.


large amounts of blood that escape into the surrounding tissue without clotting when a blood vessel is seriously injured.


substance which consists of cholesterol (mainly), calcium, clotting proteins, and other substances that can be found lining arteries


network of blood vessels, usually veins


clot that forms on the inner blood vessel wall; can lead to stroke, heart attack, or tissue destruction


type of blood vessel that travels to the heart, carrying blood.

venous sinuses

blood-filled space between two layers of tissue


smaller vein that drains the capillaries of the tissue area and the joins larger veins

For the LEFT side of the body, the common carotid and subclavian arteries arise directly from the:


For the right side of the body, the common carotid and subclavian arteries are both branches from the:

brachiocephalic artery

A direct branch of the aorta?

brachiocephalic artery

A branchless artery that travels up the neck, lateral to the trachea and larynx, to the upper border of the thyroid cartilage -

common carotid artery

The common carotid travels in a ______ deep to the ______.

sheath; SCM

The sheath that contains the common carotid also contains:

the internal jugular vein and the tenth cranial/vagus nerve

How does the common carotid end?

by dividing into the internal & external carotid arteries at about the level of the larynx

Just before the common carotid bifurcates into the internal & external carotid arteries, it exhibits a swelling called the:

carotid sinus

How is the common carotid palpated?

by rolling the anterior border of the SCM posteriorly at the level of the thyroid cartilage

The common carotid is a major artery that supplies?

the brain

Arises lateral to the common carotid artery; gives off branches to supply both intracranial and extracranial structures:

subclavian artery

This artery's major destination is the upper extremity (arm):

subclavian artery

A division that travels upward in a slightly lateral position after leaving the common carotid artery:

internal carotid artery

Has no branches in the neck but continues adjacent to the internal jugular vein within the carotid sheath to the skull base, where it enters the cranium:

internal carotid artery

The internal carotid artery supplies the intracranial structures and is the source of the ______ artery.

ophthalmic artery

Begins at the superior border of the thyroid cartilage, at the termination of the common carotid artery and the carotid sheaths:

external carotid artery

Where does the external carotid artery travel/?

upward in a more medial position (in relationship to the internal carotid) after arising from the common carotid artery.

What does the external carotid artery supply?

the extracranial tissues of the head and neck, including the oral cavity.

The external carotid has __ sets of branches grouped according to:

4 sets; according to their location: anterior, posterior, medial, and terminal branches

Anterior branches from the external carotid artery:

superior thyroid, lingual, & facial arteries

An anterior branch from the external carotid artery; has 4 branches:

superior thyroid artery

The 4 branches of the superior thyroid artery:

the infrahyoid artery, SCM branch, superior laryngeal artery, and cricothyroid branch

What doe the superior thyroid artery branches supply?

the tissues inferior to the hyoid bone including the infrahyoid muscles, SCM, muscles of the larynx, and thyroid gland

An anterior branch from the external carotid artery and arises superior to the superior thyroid artery at the level of the hyoid bone:

lingual artery

Where does the lingual artery travel?

anteriorly to the apex of the tongue by way of the its inferior surface.

What does the lingual artery supply?

the tissues superior to the hyoid bone including the suprahyoid muscles and FOM by the dorsal lingual , deep lingual, sublingual, and suprahyoid branches & the tongue.

Supplies the mylohyoid muscle, sublingual salivary gland, and mucous membranes of the FOM:

the sublingual artery

What artery is the final anterior branch from the external carotid artery?

the facial artery

What artery arises slightly superior to the lingual artery as it branches off anteriorly?

the facial artery

What two arteries sometimes carry a common trunk from the carotid?

the facial and lingual arteries

What is the facial arteries complicated path?

runs medial to the mandible, over the submandibular salivary gland, and then around the mandible's inferior border to its lateral, runs anteriorly and superiorly near the angle of the mouth and along the side of the nose.

Where does the facial artery terminate?

at the medial canthus of the eye

What does the facial artery supply?

the face in the oral buccal, zygomatic, nasal, infraorbital, and orbital regions

What artery is the first branch from the facial artery?

the ascending palatine artery

What does the ascending palatine artery supply?

the soft palate, palatine muscles, and palatine tonsils, and can be the source of the serious blood loss that may occur during a tonsillectomy

What artery branches from the facial artery supplies the submandibular lymph nodes, submandibular salivary gland, and mylohyoid and digastric muscles?

the submental artery

Another branch from the facial artery that supplies the lower lip tissues including the muscles of facial expression?

inferior labial artery

Supplies the upper lip tissues?

superior labial artery

This artery is the termination of the facial artery and supplies the tissues along the side of the nose?

angular artery

The only medial branch that comes from the external carotid artery?

the ascending pharyngeal artery; supplies soft palate

Two posterior branches of the external carotid artery:

the occipital artery and posterior auricular artery

Arises from the external carotid as it passes upward behind the ascending ramus of the mandible and travels to the posterior portion of the scalp:

the occipital artery

What does the occipital artery supply?

the suprahyoid and SCM, as well as the scalp and meningeal tissues in the occipital regions

Where is the posterior auricular artery located?

arises superior to the occipital artery and stylohyoid muscle at about the level of the tip of the styloid process

What does the posterior auricular artery supply?

the internal ear and the mastoid air cells

From where does the external carotid artery split into terminal branches?

the parotid salivary gland

Superficial temporal artery:

is the smaller terminal branch of the external carotid artery; can sometimes be visible under the skin of the temporal region in the patient

Which artery supplies the parotid salivary gland and nearby facial tissues?

the small transverse facial artery

What does the middle temporal artery supply?

the temporalis muscle

What branches of the superficial temporal artery supply the portions of the scalp in the frontal and parietal regions?

the frontal branch and parietal branch

Where does the facial vein drain?

into the internal jugular vein

What veins does the facial vein anastomoses with?

the pterygoid plexus in the infratemporal fossa and with the large retromandibular vein before joining the internal jugular vein at the level of the hyoid bone

The retromandibular vein:

will form the external jugular vein from a portion of its route; it is formed by the merger of the superficial temporal vein and maxillary vein.

Where does the retromandibular vein emerge?

from the parotid salivary gland and courses inferiorly

The pterygoid plexus of veins:

a collection of small anastomosing vessels located around the pterygoid muscles and surrounding the maxillary artery on each side of the face in the infratemporal fossa.

What does the pterygoid plexus do?

it protects the maxillary artery from being compressed during mastication, by either filling or emptying.

Some portions of the pterygoid plexus of veins are near?

the maxillary tuberosity, reflecting the drainage of dental tissues into the plexus.

Where are the venous sinuses located?

in the meninges; within the dura mater of the brain.

What is the dura mater?

a dense connective tissue that lines the inside of the cranium

What venous sinus is most important to dental professionals?

cavernous venous sinus

What does the internal jugular vein drain?

most of the tissues of the head and neck

The external jugular vein joins what vein from the arm?

the subclavian vein

The internal jugular vein mergers with the subclavian vein to form the:

brachiocephalic vein

The brachiocephalic veins unite to form:

the superior vena cava

When can an extraoral hematoma occur?

during a local anesthetic injection, especially when a posterior superior alveolar block near the pterygoid plexus of veins has been incorrectly administered

When can an intraoral hematoma occur?

when an infraorbital block or inferior alveolar block is administered incorrectly

Studies show a link between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and?

periodontal disease

A passageway to carry the secretion from the exocrine gland to the location where it will be used.


Type of gland without a duct, secretion is pour directly into the vascular system.

Endocrine gland

Type of gland with an associated duct that serves as a passageway for the secretion so that it can be emptied directly into the location where the secretion is to be used.

Exocrine gland

What is a gland?

a structure that produces a chemical secretion necessary for normal body functioning.

What is a goiter?

enlarged thyroid gland due to a disease process.

Lacrimal glands?

paired exocrine glands that secrete lacrimal fluid (tears). Not only drains from eye but continues into the nasolacrimal duct, which drains into the inferior nasal meatus.

Salivary glands?

produce saliva, which is part of the immune system.

How are salivary glands divided?

by size into major and minor glands

Salivary glands are exocrine or endocrine glands?


What is a sialolith?

a salivary stone


enlargement and tenderness in the major salivary glands


enlargement and tenderness in the minor salivary glands

Major Salivary glands

large paired glands and have named ducts associated with them.
(parotid, submandibular, and sublingual)

Parotid salivary gland

the largest encapsulated major salivary gland but provides only 25% of the total salivary vol.; salivary product from this gland is purely serous.

How many lobes is the Parotid divided into?

2 lobes; a superficial lobe and a deep lobe

What duct is associated with the parotid salivary gland?

Stensen's duct; emerges from the anterior border of the gland, superficial to the masseter muscle, pierces the buccinator muscle.

Where does Stensen's duct open into the oral cavity?

on the inner surface of the cheek, usually opposite the second maxillary molar

Parotid Papilla

a small elevation of tissue that marks the opening of the parotid duct on the inner surface of the cheek

What artery supplies the parotid salivary gland?

the external carotid artery

What causes the parotid gland to become enlarged?

mumps; can also be involved tumorous growth

Submandibular salivary gland

the second largest salivary gland yet provides 60-65% of total salivary vol.; mixed salivary product that has both serous and mucous secretions

What duct is associated with the submandibular gland?

Wharton's duct

Sublingual caruncle

a small papilla near the midline of the mouth floor on each side of the lingual frenum; this is where Wharton's duct opens into the oral cavity.

Where is the submandibular duct located?

occupies the submandibular fossa in the submandibular fascial space, mainly in its posterior portion

The submandibular duct is innervated by what nerve?

by the chorda tympani and the submandibular ganglion of the facial nerve

What arteries supply the submandibular duct?

branches of the facial and lingual arteries

Sublingual salivary gland

smallest, most diffuse, and only unencapsulated major salivary gland, provides only 10% of total salivary vol.; has mixed salivary product, but with the mucous secretion predominating.

What duct is associated with the sublingual salivary gland?

Bartholin's duct

Where does the sublingual duct open into the oral cavity?

the sublingual caruncle

Where is the sublingual gland located?

in the sublingual fossa in the sublingual fascial space at the FOM; is superior to the mylohyoid muscle and medial to the body of the mandible

What arteries supply the sublingual gland?

the sublingual and submental arteries

Minor salivary glands

smaller than the larger major salivary glands but are more numerous in number; are exocrine glands, but ducts are shorter and unnamed.

Where are minor salivary glands located?

scattered in the tissues of the buccal, labial, and lingual mucosa, the soft palate, the lateral portions of the hard palate, and the FOM

von Ebner's glands

are minor salivary glands that are associated with the large circumvallate lingual papillae on the posterior portion of the tongue's dorsal surface; secretes only a serous type of salivary product

Thyroid gland

largest endocrine gland; consists of 2 lateral lobes that are connected by an isthmus.

What does the thyroid gland produce and secrete?

thyroxine, which is a hormone that stimulates the metabolic rate.

Where does the thyroid gland drain?

into the superior deep cervical lymph nodes

What arteries supply the thyroid?

the superior and inferior thyroid arteries

Thymus gland

an endocrine gland; is a portion of the immune system that fights disease processes; T-cells mature here.

T-cell lymphocytes

which blood cells of the immune system that mature in the thymus gland in response to stimulation by thymus hormones

(T/F) The thymus gland grows in size from birth to puberty.


(T/F) By the age of 40, the thymus has returned to its weight at birth.


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