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Male Genital System
Terms in this set (31)
What are the 3 zones is the prostate is divided into?
Central, transitional, peripheral
What are the 2 layers of cells that line the prostate gland?
Basal cells (at the periphery), epithelial cells (on the luminal surface) (lose the basal layer when become malignant)
What are 3 types of non-neoplastic lesions in the prostate gland?
Infection (chronic/acute prostatitis), Inflammation (granulomatomous prostatitis), Deposits (amyloid, calculi)
What is an example of a mixed epithelial and mesenchymal benign neoplasm in the prostate gland? (Benign Mesenchymal only = leiomyoma; benign epithelial only = adenosis)
BPH (Benign prostatic hyperplasia)
What is an example of a malignant neoplastic lesion of epithelial origin in the prostate gland? (Malginant Mesenchymal only = leiomyosarcoma, stromal sarcoma and mixed epithelial and mesenchymal = epithelial stromal carcinoma)
What type of prostatic neoplastic lesion is this? There is hyperplasia of both glands and stroma. Glands are still lined by 2 layers of cell (epithelial and basal cells). The cells are bland looking
In BPH what stain is used to detect if there is a basal layer (i.e. NEGATIVE MARKER for malignancy)
High molecular weight cytokeratin IHC
What is the differences in appearance of nodules in adenocarcinoma compared with BPH?
Evidence of haemorrhage and necrosis in adenocarinoma (grow really fast and die) and peripheral (BPH more likely to be central)
Serum levels of what may rise in prostatic adenocarcinoma?
PSA (prostate specific antigen) (need to do prostate biopsy for conformation but DRE and US can help with diagnosis)
What are 3 treatment options for prostatic adenocarcinoma?
Radical prostectomy, radiotherapy, hormone specific therapy
This histology signifies BPH or prostatic adenocarcinoma?
1) Back to back glands
2) Glands with single layer
3) Cells show prominent central nucleoli
4) Complete absence of basal layer
What are 2 types of non-neoplastic neoplasms in the penis? Gross appearance is papillary, fungating, wart-like
What is an example of a neoplastic lesion of the penis?
What is it called in the scrotum when there is a collection of serous fluid in the tunica vaginalis?
What are 2 examples of non-neoplastic lesions of the testes?
Cryptorchidism (undescended testis, shows atrophy, increased risk of malignancy), torsion (only occurs post trauma or in undescended tests, very painful, venous type infarction, orchidopexy)
There are 5 types of germ cell tumours in the testes. Spermatocytic differentiation leads to...?
Seminoma (typical/anaplastic spermatocytic- most common, painless unilateral, bulky, testicular enlargement. Looks homogenous, creamy white tumour usually with no harmorrhage or necrosis)
There are 5 types of germ cell tumours in the testes. Intraembryonic differentiation leads to...?
Teratoma (mature or immature- all 3 embryonic layers i.e. skin, hair, cartilage, bone which are well differentiated, benign and haphazardly arranged. In mature all mature cells and immature then cells are primitive cells)
There are 5 types of germ cell tumours in the testes. Extraembryonic differentiation leads to 2 tumour types? What are they?
Yolk sac tumour (forms solid, papillary and mirocystic patterns, secrete AFP in serum), choriocarcinoma (highly malignant, composed of trophoblastic tissue, secrete HcG in serum)
There are 5 types of germ cell tumours in the testes. An example of an undifferentiated tumours is...?
Embryonal Carcinoma (fleshy and cystic or necrotic areas. Sheets of immature, pleomorphic cells in solid, tubular or papillary patterns with many mitoses and tumour giant cells)
What is the most common testicular tumour in <3 year olds?
Yolk sac tumour
What is the most common tumour testicular tumour type (50%) usually in 20-40 year olds?
Are seminomatous tumours radiosensitive or radio-resistive?
Are non- seminomatous (teratoma, yolk sac tumour, choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma) tumours radiosensitive or radio-resistent?
What do testicular yolk sac tumours secrete in serum?
AFP (alpha fetoprotein)
What do testicular choriocarcinomas secrete in serum (and also be detected in IHV)? Choriocarcinomas are composed of trophoblastic tissue with a cytotrophoblast and a syncytiotrophoblast
HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)
What are 3 tumour markers in testicular tumours?
AFP, HCG, LDH
Which tumour marker is elevated in trophoblastic tumours and some seminomas?
Which tumour marker is elevated in yolk sac tumours?
AFP or HCG or BOTH increased in 50% of _______ and 90% of __________?
Teratoma, teratoma+embryonal carcinoma
What is the tumour marker LDH used for assessing?
A non-neoplastic sperm granuloma in the epididymus can be caused by what 2 things?
Inflammation or trauma (non caseating granulomatous inflammation around sperms),
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