28 terms

Sun and Earth System

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Equator
An imaginary line around the middle of the earth that divides the Earth into the Northern and Southern hemispheres, 0 degrees latitude North or South
Prime Meridian
An imaginary line that divides the Earth into Western and Eastern hemispheres, 0 degrees longitude East or West
Northern Hemisphere
The hemisphere North of the Equator
Southern Hemisphere
The hemisphere South of the Equator
Antarctic Circle
66.5 degrees South, Receives almost 24 hours of daylight on December 21 and almost no daylight on June 21
Arctic Circle
66.5 degrees North, Receives almost 24 hours of daylight on June 21 and almost no daylight on December 21
Tropic of Capricorn
23.5 degrees South, Direct rays of sunlight hit on December 21
Tropic of Cancer
23.5 degrees North, Direct rays of sunlight hit on June 21
Latitude
Shows how far North or South of the Equator a place is
Longitude
Shows how far East or West of the Prime Meridian a place is
Rotation/Rotate
Circular movement around an axis, Earth rotates from East to West, Takes 24 hours for Earth to make a full rotation
terminator line
The dividing line of light and dark, Line where light and dark halves meet, Does not move, Causes sunrise and sunset
Axis
An imaginary line running through the middle of a planet
Time Zones
Earth is divided into 24 time zones, Continental U.S. is divided into 4, Each time zone covers 15 degrees of longitude, East of the Equator is +1 hours and West of the Equator is -1 hour
Altitude
Elevation or height above sea level
revolve
To travel around, The Earth and other planets revolve around the sun
Winter Solstice
Day with the fewest hours of sunlight and most of darkness, December 21, Beginning of winter
Summer Solstice
Day with the most hours of sunlight and the fewest hours of darkness, June 21, Beginning of summer
Vernal Equinox
Equal hours of sunlight and darkness, March 21, Beginning of spring
Autumnal Equinox
Equal hours of sunlight and darkness, September 22 or 23, Beginning of Autumn
Direct Sunlight Rays
Rays from the sun that hit directly on the Earth's surface, Covers smaller area, Warmer, More direct rays in summer
Indirect Rays
Light that is spread out among the surface and less intense, Covers greater area, Colder, More indirect rays in winter
Ellipse/Elliptical
A elongated circle or oval shape, The shape of Earth's orbit around the sun
Finding Latitude and Longitude
_____ degrees N or S, _____ degrees E or W
Earth's Shape
Oblate Spheroid
Shadows, the Time of Day, and Direction
Sunrise:
-Sun is in the East
-Sun is low in the sky
-The angles of the sun rays are small
-Shadows are long and point West
Noon:
-Sun is in the South
-The sun is high in the sky
-The angle of the sun's rays are at its highest angle
-Shadows are short and point North
Sunset:
-Sun is in the West
-The sun is low in the sky
-The angle of the sun's rays are small
-Shadows are long and point East
Reasons for Seasons
1. Tilt of the Earth
-Earth's axis is tilted 23.5 degrees and always points the same direction in space
-During summer the Northern Hemisphere points towards the sun and during winter away from the sun
2. The angle of the Sun's light
-The Northern and Southern Hemispheres receive direct rays of sunlight in the summer and indirect rays in the winter
-In the Northern Hemisphere the rays are direct in June and indirect in December
-In the Southern Hemisphere the rays are direct in December and indirect in June
3. Length of daylight
-Shorter days=colder temperatures
-Longer days=warmer temperatures
-Most hours of daylight in summer and least in winter
4. Revolution
-Earth revolves around the sun once every 365 1/4 days
-Equinoxes and Solstices determine start of seasons

***Distance to the sun does not affect seasons
Amount of Daylight and Darkness
Summer: Most daylight, least darkness, Hours of daylight decreasing, Summer Solstice=Day of the year with most daylight
Winter: Most darkness, least daylight, Hours of daylight increasing, Winter Solstice= Day of the year with least daylight
Spring: Close to equal amounts of daylight and darkness, Hours of daylight increasing, Vernal Equinox=Equal amount of daylight and darkness
Autumn: Close to equal amounts of daylight and darkness, Hours of daylight decreasing, Autumnal Equinox=Equal amount of daylight and darkness