Terms in this set (61)
Origins of Conservatism
Preserve the status quo, keep what is already in place
An attempt to prop up or preserve and to change very little the life of human beings that existed socially, politically, and economically in the middle ages (feudalism).
-The ideology of the hierarchical community of the feudal era.
Tennets of Conservatism
1) Hierarchy is good
2) Community is the goal
3) Partial Rationality
4) States function- Paternalistic
5) History and customs- Always been hierarchy
6) Equality- do not believe everyone is rational
7) Those at the top have responsibilities
positive attitude towards certain modes of conduct and existence
The basis of our equality is rationality. Conservatives believe that we have passions that prevail throughout our life experiences. Institutions are provided to check us on our wild passions.
The government must check our passions by acting paternalistic. This is to protect the country like parents protect their kids
Role of Individual Conservatism
Our worth is based off of how much we contribute to the community
Classical Conservatives Economics
Land was the basis for wealth in the middle ages, based on landowning aristocracy. Land owners were considered stronger, natural governing class. They would be horrified with how money is distributed today. Believe in interdependency, therefore although the top 1% may be considered the elite they need the lower classes. Free market economics, in favor of Keynesian economics to help the community.
Free Market, Government is too big, basically classical economic liberalism
Disenchanted with welfare, state liberals government has a role to play, economomically they do believe in Keynesian. They do not believe welfare played out the way it should have.
-Once government got involved, they never got out
-Hate progressive movements
-society is crap
-horrified by pornography and gay marriage
Social realm is key
Equate morality culture with Christian morality
Advocate rule by moral majority
Role of the state is to promote government
The free market must support your agenda
Designed to go back and help those who were left behind in the liberalist movement. More similar to conservatism, they are both going to focus on a few issues like communal issue and the government should be in some social issues. They both criticize liberalism. Ideology of the working class. Hate private property, communal is key.
Position on collective: Everyone is equal in the community. Interdependence in both communities, aristocrats have responsibilities within this.
Nature of man: man is rational and social. We seek to do things for the benefit of our social being.
Importance of education: the more educated you are the better you will see the flaws in government.
Possibility for social engineering: creating ideal human beings, they do not like hierarchy but do like democracy and freedom.
Wrote "Utopia" for Utopian Socialism
Keystone and foundation of socialism. Fond of Hagle, tries to understand capitalism. He writes the communist manifesto about how much he hates capitalism. Claimed utopian socialism is a pie in the sky idea.
The Dialectical Flow of history
believes that all history has an identifiable direction and a purpose. The direction is progressive. History is made from contradiction
History is progressive and that it keeps getting better
There is an identifiable purpose and progress
All around us we find ideas that dominate and by their very nature will produce opposites, contradiction is the root of all life, and they will produce a hybrid of the two that is not the two ideas.
Material Interpretation of History
-The movement of human history lies within the relations of production and class conflict
-For example you cannot have an aristocrat without serfs
-In any given historical era, one will find conflict between the economic class that controls the means of production and dominates the relations of production and the exploited class.
Scientific Socialism, stages of societal evolution
Necessity of Revolution
-The way you make transformation is through revolutionary activity
-Prevailing ideology justifies current system
-Current owners of the means of production do not politely step aside
-Owners of the means of production will use all means at their disposal to maintain current order
-Marx could find no historical example of peaceful transition
-The workers need to realize that their life under capitalism is not getting better
-To get from one to another requires violence
-Championed three ideas:
1) Time was on their side
2) Education was key (to inform workers and children of the evil nature of capitalism)
3) Transformation through voting booth, not through the barrel of a gun
European Revisionists of Marx
1. Capitalism was not about to collapse
2. Number of capitalists were increasing
Individualists would be able to acquire capital by owning stock
3. New middle class was developing
-Engineers, civil servants etc
-laboring class that was once a part of manufacturing is now shifting towards the service industry especially in post-industrialized nations like the U.S.
4. As societies democratized more individuals could transform one system from within
-"open the party to more people"
-The development of class consciousness
-In the end, Bernstein's major beef w/ marx was?
-underestimated the role that could be played by the democratic state, socialism is about remembering those who have been forgotten
believed, unlike Marx, the masses could be thought of as a sleeping giant
Who wakes up the sleeping giant?
Major contribution to socialist theory:
provides a how-to on getting to the end of capitalism:
establish a vanguard party
The Vanguard Party
intellectuals who are skilled/trained in Marxism
"Highly specialized and disciplined"
1) Role of Peasants (Masses)
-Revolutionary force isn't the working class because Chine isn't industrialized
-Mao was a peasant himself. He was that peasants were exploited by their landlords.
-In China, peasants are your typical revolutionary class.
2) Proctated a guerilla warfare
-Shared with Lenin and Marx but not revisionists, believed that you need violent revolution. "political change comes out of the barrel of a gun"
3) National Revolution
-the unique circumstances of China was such that you need to consolidate your energy. Develop a revolutionary transformation here before spreading it elsewhere.
Unifying Theme of all socialists
Hate Private Property
A group of people with a common bind. What binds them together is their culture, beliefs, or status
possess sovereignty. Legal authority in a given territory over a group of individuals
Doctrine that advocates the supremacy of the nation-state as the appropriate means of political organization worldwide
What nationalism amounts to is the promotion of countries, dividing the world that we know
Nation states have not always been here
Primary way of organizing human affairs
Origin of nationalism
If you were an aristocrat at this time and you wanted to engage in a conflict with another aristocrat then you would need the permission of the person above you
Thirty years war- Protestants do not like this type of hierarchy
One third of the population of Europe dies in that war
In result the protestant princes win
The peace of Westphalia says that these people are in charge of their own land
Uses for Nationalism - End
it becomes an objective. To obtain sovereignty for the nation as a whole. For nations that do not have state hood. Example: Puerto Rico. They can't vote in congress, and they can't vote in elections, they wanted to become a state. The US congress has to buy into it
Origin of Modern Fascism
-Socialism was the first frontal assault on liberalism in the 20th century; fascism was the second
- Nationalism on steroids
-Generally speaking, fascism is a European phenomenon between the inter-war years
-Brief historical interlude in the context of European affairs
Pillars of Fascism - Hyper Nationalism
-An attempt to establish national glory
Try and conquer- the policies of imperialism
The Germans, Italians, and Japanese used imperialism
How do you establish internal national glory?
Uses for Nationalism- Means
becomes a means of nation building. We teach our school children about the culture of the US and how it is a melting pot. We become one from all different nations. An end to itself.
Uses for Nationalism- techniques
for operating in the form of foreign affairs. Economically if you follow a nationalist economic policy you should fall by mercantilism. Tactics
Pillars of Fascism- Racism
Any strand has a racist quality to it. The fascist ideology is in some ways similar but profoundly different than conservatism.
Conservatives believe that the nation is a living organism, like fascists.
Problems kill the organism,
Conservatives believe that the living organism is society, depending on the status of the individual shows the importance of the individual
The parasite—you kill it so it doesn't kill the organism
You eradicate those who are not like your society
Pillars of Fascism- Totalitarianism
Characterizing the relationship between government and its citizens. Not a type of government, but a relationship. Control between government and its citizens.
What are three spheres of our human existence?
relationships you have, can you date members of the same sex?
Education is social; people are you affiliated, media, and etc. Procreation can be social.
In totalitarianism, the government controls your social realm. The government controls the media, your affiliations with clubs, who you can marry, etc.
Prices of goods, taxes, what kind of job you have, where, how and when you will produce an item through your job, do you have to barter or use currency?
There is nothing in fascism that suggest that maximizing profits is a good thing, however they believe in state corporatism
Throughout society you should have peak associations that correspond with any sector.
Fascists have a way of addressing your political life. Absence of political parties, there is one single party. There is a fusion of the state with the party, the party is the state and the state is the party.
Pillars of Fascism- Mass mobilization
To unify the people at all costs. You will have your standard procedures for cementing national unity.
Fourth of July- You have holidays, parades, and celebrations. Beyond these democratic procedures they had a core of individuals known as the brown shirts. If anyone was opposing the glorification of the state they would be sensed and then eliminated.
Pillars of Fascism- Leadership Principle
Fascists believe that democracy and the compromise that go with it are problematic. They think that the compromise shows weakness and not strength. There will be within society individuals who are more faithful to the nation. There will come a singular leader who will be deified who will have mystic qualities to guy the people into the promise land.
the notion that it is human beings that are the source of all value
Means that human beings should never be used as a mean to an end
2) Based upon the principle of rationalism. Reason as manifesting itself in scientific progress will help us to answer all of those unanswerable questions. Trust in a human's ability to reason
We would figure out what is right and wrong through the church, however secularism believes that when science and religion conflict that science should take the edge. Reason is the basis of truth.
We are making advancements. Human beings are advancing in a positive way over time. Absolute truth will one day be revealed
We are all equal.
-Logical opposite of fascism
-There is no state
-Literally means without a leader
-The fundamental principle of anarchism is to create an absent government
-The premise of the approach is that government is bad
-Emma Goldmen, William Godlen, Chonsky
-Get rid of government and our lives will be much better off
Inspirations for Anarchism
Inspirations behind anarchism
-Investigations of other societies that do not have a government that seem to be plentiful (indigenous societies)
-Used Locke's "State of Nature" to show that we do not need government
-Those inefficiencies can be dealt with without government
-Technological Advances: What happens if scarcity is no longer something to worry about? There is enough food to feed everyone in earth, however the countries that produce food go after profit.
Key ideas anarchism
1) Ellimnation of Hierarchy
2) Voluntary Consent
4) Direct Action
5) Moral rejection of existing society
is one of the major forms of social anarchism. The idea behind anarcho-syndicalism is to combine the economic methods ofsyndicalism with the revolutionary politics of anarchism. This leads anarcho-syndicalists to be involved in everything from small propaganda groups to mass revolutionary unions, always organised according to anarchist principles, on a decentralised, federated basis.
A radical political movement that advocates bringing industry and government under the control of federations of labor unions by the use of direct action, such as general strikes and sabotage.
An extreme laissez-faire political philosophy advocating only minimal state intervention in the lives of citizens.
-Not one approach, but many
-A lot of different types of feminists
-Unifying feature is their disgust with the social structure of patriarchy
-Patriarchy is a social structure of domination of men over women
First Generation Feminism
Seeking to bring to an end what is called Dejuire discrimination
Means "by law"
Being discriminated by the law
Very similar to the revisionists of socialism
Do some remodeling
Second Generation Feminism
Defacto discrimination, lower wages, etc
Third Generation Feminism
-All about acceptance in the game
-Quest for the forging of identity
-You can be whatever you want to be and it's accepted
Gains of Feminists
Overall accomplishments of Feminism
-Gained the right to vote
-Are in professions they weren't in before
-Transformation of domestic expectations
-Different notations of what it means to be a woman.
-More women in positions of "power"
Willing to and able to do it, not whether you should do it
Origins of Environmentalism
Rachel Carson would be the most influential, Wrote Silent Spring
-She traced out the damaging effects of pesticides on the biotic system
-Aldo Leopold, Aldo wrote a work called the sand county almanac (1949)
-Lays out the transformation in his farm in Wisconsin, why we need to preserve
-Based on the silent spring the EPA was created
Unique Characteristics behind environmentalism
Effecting someone's wellbeing - interdependence
-The reliance of one unit on another for its wellbeing
-The idea that one unit it reliant upon the environment and the environment on the human being for wellbeing
Light Green Party
Best captured in groups like the natural wildlife foundation, the sierra club, etc
The principles of the ecological scientists are sound
Difference: believe that the way to get there is through the system
Engage in give and take
Built upon negotiation
Dark Green Party
Change the entire system, rotten to the core
Negotiation with those who are trying to lead us to destruction is a form of surrendering. There is no compromise; this is what needs to be done.
Like Leninists and revisionists
We need to engage in direct action
Earth First is an example of Dark green
And back to the land movement