47 terms

MH - Psychoneurobiology

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frontal lobe
- motor cortex (precentral gyrus)
- pre-motor area
- prefrontal lobe
motor cortex
- controls voluntary movement
- posterior portion of the frontal lobe
- the motor cortex in each hemisphere controls mainly muscles on the opposite site of the body
pre-motor area
- involved with voluntary motor movement that is not under conscious control
neuroplasticity
- brain can compensate for injury
- respond to new situations and uses
- changes amongst individuals and over time in a single brain
- use it or lose it
prefrontal lobe
- personality
- executive functioning
executive functioning
- reasoning
- memory
- inhibition
- motivation
- planning
- judgment
- suppresses primitive impulses
temporal lobe
- language (written and verbal)
- left temporal lesions disturb recognition of words
- right temporal damage can cause a loss of inhibition of talking
- memory and learning
- hearing (sensing and processing)
occipital lobe
- visual center
- controls sight and ability to understand written words
- visual interpretation
parietal lobe
- known as the "processing center"
- interprets and integrates sensory information
- sensory functions of touch and temperature
- perception of pain
- proprioception and visuospacial
limbic system
- controls instincts, drives, needs, emotions
- rewards and punishment center
- regulates sense of smell
amygdala
- controls and generates emotions (based of perceptions and thoughts)
- opiate receptors
- controls autonomic responses to fear
hippocampus
- regulation of immune system
- memory storage, turns recent memory into long term
thalamus
- monitors sensory input
- processes all motor and sensory input coming from spinal cord and brain stem and cerebellum
- it relays to the cerebral cortex information receive from diverse brain regions
- pain sensory
hypothalamus
- neuroendocrine
- converts thinking and feeling into hormones, causes physical changes throughout the body via the ANS
- works with pituitary to regulate BP, water balance, sleep, appetite, temp, metabolism
- olfactory emotional responses
agonist
- binds to a receptor and triggers a response by the cell
- produces an action
antagonist
acts against and blocks an action
excitatory
- depolarizes
- firing
inhibition
- hyperpolarizes
- no firing
excitatory neurotransmitters
- dopamine
- norepinephrine
- glutamate
inhibitory neurotransmitters
- serotonin
- GABA
- melatonin
GABA and glutamate
both neurotransmitters work together to control many process, including the brain's overall level of excitation
dopamine
- "grandfather" of neurotransmitters
- control of complex/fine motor movement, motivation, cognition
- regulates emotion
- "gotta have it" neurotransmitter (motivation, rewards, pleasure)
- made from tyrosine
dopamine function
- abstract thinking
- respond to reward
- muscle control
- integrates thoughts and feelings
dopamine excess
- disorganized thinking
- compulsions
- tics
- psychosis
dopamine deficit
parkinson's disease
norepinephrine
- regulates attention and vigilance
- regulation of mood and reward value of stimulus
- made from tyrosine and is a precursor to dopamine
- 'noradrenaline'
- released due to sympathetic stimulation
norepinephrine function
- alertness
- orientation
- learning and memory
- fight or flight
norepinephrine excess
- anxiety
- paranoia
- loss of appetite
norepinephrine deficit
- low energy
- depression
serotonin
- 5-HT acts to balance dopamine
- "got it" neurotransmitter, allows you to stop when you achieve what you need
- synthesized from tryptophan and precursor to melatonin (affects sleep)
serotonin function
- inhibition
- calmness
- regulation of temp and sleep
- pain perception
serotonin excess
- sedation
- increased sleep
- indecision
serotonin deficit
- irritability
- insomnia
- decreased impulse control
- aggression
schizophrenia findings
- too much dopamine
- naturally peaks in late adolescence
- serotonin isn't modulating the dopamine
- antipsychotic meds block dopamine receptors
role of serotonin
- modulating effect on dopamine
- newer antipsychotics are serotonin and dopamine blocking agents
amygdala anxiety
- communication center that stores memories
- phobias/PTSD
hippocampus anxiety
- controls recall of event and stores it in memory
- PTSD
anxiety neurotransmitters
- too little GABA
- too much norepinephrine (tricyclics decrease activity)
- to little serotonin (SSRI's)
- too much glutamate (caffeine increases this)
depression
smaller hippocampus
bipolar
bigger amygdala
depression and bipolar
decreased metabolism in the frontal lobe
dysregulation theory
not enough serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine
cortisol
excess = depression
mania
deficient GABA
joanna fowler
- using radioactive tracers and PET scans
- alcohol, cocaine, meth abusers have understimulated reward centers
- decreased activity in frontal lobe
opiate
increases the neuronal firing rate of dopamine cells
cocaine
inhibits the reuptake of dopamine