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Gross II Unit 3 -Groin
Terms in this set (52)
The inguinal ligament is formed by what?
the lower edge of the external oblique aponeurosis
Where does the inguinal ligament extend from and to?
extends from the ASIS to the pubic tubercle
What is the lacunar ligament?
the most medial fibers of hte inguinal ligament which are inserted into the superior pubic ramus
What is the pectineal ligament?
a lateral extension of the lacunar ligament along the pecten pubis
What is another name of the pecten pubis?
the pectineal line
What is the inguinal canal?
an oblique passage 3 to 5 cm in length through the anterior abdominal wall
Where does the inguinal canal begin and end at?
begins at the deep inguinal ring and end at the superficial inguinal ring
Within the anterior abdominal wall, where does the deep inguinal ring lie?
lateral and internal
Within the anterior abdominal wall, where does the superficial inguinal ring lie?
medial and external
What gender is the inguinal canal larger in?
the male than the female
What does the inguinal canal transmit in a male?
spermatic cord and ilioinguinal nerve
What does the inguinal canal transmit in a female?
round ligament of the uterus and the ilioinguinal nerve
What is another name for the conjoint tendon?
What is the conjoint tendon formed by?
the fusion of hte aponeuroses of the internal oblique and transversus abdominis as they insert into the pubic crest and pecten pubis deep to the inguinal ligament
What does the conjoint tendon strengthen?
the posterior wall of the medial half of the inguinal canal
What are the boundaries of the inguinal canal?
1. anterior wall
2. posterior wall
Describe the anterior wall boundary of the inguinal canal?
formed by the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle
Describe the posterior wall boundary of the inguinal canal?
formed by the conjoint tendon and transversalis fascia
Describe the roof boundary of the inguinal canal?
formed by the arching fibers of the internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles
Describe the floor boundary of the inguinal canal?
formed by the inguinal and lacunar ligaments
What is the superficial inguinal ring?
a triangular opening in the external oblique aponeurosis
Where does the superficial inguinal ring lie?
immediately lateral to the pubic tubercle
What does the superficial inguinal ring transmit?
the spermatic cord in the male, the round ligament of the uterus in the female, and the ilioinguinal nerve in both sexes
What happens to the structures in the inguinal canals as they exit the inguinal canal?
they become subcutaneous at the superficial ring
How is the superficial inguinal ring formed?
by the splitting of the external oblique aponeurosis into two crura
Where does the lateral crus insert?
Where do some of the fibers of the lateral crus reflect to?
reflect to the superior pubic ramus as the lacunar ligament
Where does the medial crus insert into?
the pubic crest
What do the intercrural fibers strengthen?
the apex of the superficial inguinal ring
What is the deep inguinal ring?
an opening within the transversalis fascia
Where is the deep inguinal ring located?
above the inguinal ligament midway between the ASIS and the pubic symphysis
Where does the deep inguinal ring lie lateral to?
the inferior epigastric vessels
What is the inguinal triangle bounded by medially?
by the lateral edge of the rectus abdominis muscle
What is the inguinal triangle bounded by laterally?
by the inferior epigastric vessels
What is the inguinal triangle bounded by inferiorly?
by the inguinal ligament
What is an area of POTENTIAL weakness in the anterior abdominal wall?
the inguinal triangle
Where do direct inguinal hernias occur here?
the inguinal triangle
What is the relation of the inguinal ring between before birth and an adult?
it is present before birth, but is shorter and much less oblique than in the adult
In an adult, the superficial inguinal ring lies almost directly where?
directly anterior to the deep inguinal ring
What happens to the inguinal canal during childhood development?
lengthens and assumes its characteristically oblique position
What is an area of weakness within the anterior abdominal wall, making it susceptible to hernias?
What happens to the contractions of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall during coughing and straining?
elevates intra-abdominal pressure, potentially forcing abdominal contents into the canal
What are two anatomincal adaptations function to strengthen the inguinal canal?
1. The inguinal canal is oblique in adults.
2. the conjoint tendon
What does the inguinal canal being oblique in adults allow?
it allows the canal to be compressed by the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall when they contract
Paradoxically, the same muscles which increase intra-abdominal pressure (promoting hernia) also narrow what?
the inguinal canal (preventing hernia)
What reinforces the posterior wall of the inguinal canal?
the conjoint tendon
What is a hernia?
an abnormal protrusion of tissue through an opening
In inguinal hernias, abdominal viscera (usually the small intestine) protrude through the ------?
Inguinal hernias are more common in males than females due to what two reasons?
1. the large diameter of the inguinal canal in males for passage of the spermatic cord
2. the scrotum is an outpouching of the anterior abdominal wall
What creates a large potential space for abdominal viscera to fill?
What is homologous to the scrotum of the male, but are mostly filled with fat?
the labia majora of the female
What are the two kinds of inguinal hernias?
indirect and direct inguinal hernias
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