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Inca Final Exam
Terms in this set (64)
Division of land administered by the Inca
The division of land was organized by the Inca church for religious purposes, the state for Topa Inca and the Empire, and by local people.
Division of land previous system before Inca rule
The division of land was under local gods, the kuraka, and the community in many Andean communities prior to the Inca system.
Supply on command
Production in the Inca Empire was designed to meet institutional demands (ie: state interests and projects), and was not based on the concept of supply and demand in a market economy.
Labor tax, you take a turn working for the state each year. The type of labor was dependent on where you're from and what skills you possess. Some ethnic groups exempt due to important skills/production or because the Inca thought they were incompetent
male head of household. This was the basic unit used for purposes of assessing Mit'a (labor tax).
The person performing Mit'a (labor tax);the larger the family the faster the work could be completed, so if he had a large family he was thought to be well off and incentivized couples to have multiple children
lifelong servants to Inca state, could be metal works, textile workers, etc. They were exempt from Mit'a.
people that live on floating reed islands on lake titicaca. The origins of these people are unknown. The Inca thought they were useless, and required them to turn in a basket of head lice to the Inca every 4 months as their labor tax.
Chupachu labor service
Range of labor activities required of inhabitants of Chuchito, which were recorded during the last Inca census ~mid-1520's. These labor services included: Gold and silver miners, construction workers for Cuzco, retainers for Wayna Capac (deceased) who worked the late emperor's estate, feather workers, dye makers, guards and military, shepherds, and porters.
These were located near provincial centers and administered directly by the state. Some state farms were created specifically to exploit favorable conditions for certain crops (eg: maize, beans etc)
City with very rich and productive soil. Wayna Capac established it as a state farm, and moved the local pop. out of W. Cochabamba and moved in 14,000 mitmaquna (settlers). Farm food was placed in storage to use for military campaigns; in Bolivia
Special field in a sacred valley outside of Cuzco set aside for Inti (sun goddess). Topa Inca would ceremonially till the ground with a golden plow, then the queen, then the nobility from highest to lowest rank. The maize would be harvested by young members of the nobility who had recently completed their right of passage.
large state run store houses commonly found on open hill slopes, which facilitated the freeze drying process and allowed for water drainage. Pachakuti was possibly the first to develop these storehouses, which were necessary due to an increase of labor requirements.
the state would train llamas to be pack animals for war. The Inca would use the wool and leather for clothing for state personnel, especially for the soldiers.
Master craftsperson/craft teacher; mainly located in Cuzco
The most valued arts in the inca realm. Textiles were the closest thing to money that the Inca had as a unit of exchange. The production required tens of thousands of people, and all women and most men participated in textile production on some level. (429) Weaving was mostly done with a back strap loom by a single person, although larger pieces were woven utilizing four wooden posts in the ground.
Spinning was done with a drop spindle, usually made of ceramic or wood. This method of spinning yarn is still used in some traditional communities, and uses drop spindles similar to those found in the archaeological record.
Thick cloth used for blankets and other durable material. It was generally the roughest grade of cloth produced by the Inca.
Everyday medium grade textile used for clothing. It may have had some simple decoration.
The finest grade of cloth, usually made of vicunia (camelid) wool. The tapestry style of weave allowed for elaborate designs. Some Qompi clothes incorporated bat or viscacha (rodent) fur for particularly fine material. Bird feathers were also occasionally used.
a red fringe on kings head dress (made of textile); only kings could wear this.
Long sash that was worn by women to cinch clothing
Rectangular tunic worn by men.
Male only masters of fine weaving. Their cloth was only produced for the nobility.
Textiles made by priestesses that was only for the Sapa Inca and for special sacrifices
a community established by Wanya Qhapaq. It was entirely comprised of weavers that included 1000 households. This weaving community was probably established at this location due to the very large number of camelids in the area, providing easy access to raw materials.
not used for mechanical advantage, but used to represent deities and power. The Inca had little experience or expertise in metallurgy, so metal working was primarily done by other ethnic groups within the empire.
Wrote "Technology of Power." Archaeologist and expert on Inca metallurgy, and the symbolic use and meanings of metals within Inca cosmology. Metals are gifts from the earth and Mama Acha.
Technology of power
Written by Heather Lechtman. "technologies are performances; they are communicative systems, and their styles are symbols through which communication occurs." Gold, silver, copper, iron etc.were not used for tools or weapons. They were representative of deities, and were symbolic of status, power, and the nobility. While these materials could have been used in a functional sense (eg: iron plows or weapons), the Inca only used them in a ceremonial way.
The earth mother. The Inca would worship large rocks with metal ore in them, and pray to Mama Acha as thanks.
huge golden disk in Cuzco used in ritual ceremonies. It allegedly contained the cremains and internal organs of some previous emperors, and was housed in the Quori Kancha (Golden Enclosure). It was melted down following the spanish conquest
Inca mining techniques were crude, and varied from narrow shaft mines to open pit mining. Mining was usually done by seasonal labor tax. Most of the metal ore was sent to Cuzco for smelting and the production of goods. A significant portion of the mines were owned directly by the Topa Inca (living and dead), who usually owned the most productive mines, while community mines had lower concentrations of ore, and were scattered geographically
Cuzco-style polychrome pottery is the archaeological hallmark of Inca Presence throughout the andes. (442) The pottery were not used in the peasants everyday life. The pottery is notable due to the high quality of manufacture, and that it was well fired at high temperatures.
A large vase with a pointed bottom that was used for serving Chicha (maize beer) during festivals/ceremonies. The pointed bottom was set in a hole or a woven base; these vessels are very distinctive and highly diagnostic of Inca production.
Drinking cups used for consuming Chicha (maize beer) during festivals/ceremonies.
All Inca stone working was done with stone tools. Rough blocks were cut out at a quarry site using round hammer stones, and custom finished on the construction site to fit in with the existing blocks. They were so precise that no mortar was needed, and the buildings are very resistant to earthquakes.
A method of joining blocks of stone together by shaping the sides so that they fit together firmly. They probably used crude but effective measuring devices and a plumb bob to ensure the face of the stone matched those adjoining it.
Discovered by Francisco Pizarro in 1519 with other conquistadors. They founded Panama City, and utilized it as a base camp for subsequent expeditions further south.
illegitimate child of a military captain of noble rank and a low born woman from Trujillo. He was illiterate, and had no prestige due to being born out of wedlock. Second cousin to Hernan Cortez. He was the leader of the spaniards who conquered the Inca Empire.
Diego de Almargo
Francisco Pizarro's partner initially. The two lead multiple expeditions south of Panama. After the conquest of the Inca, he and Pizarro have a falling out, and was killed by Herando Pizarro. Later his adherents took vengeance by killing Francisco Pizarro in 1541.
Conquistador with Pizarro and Almargo. He captured a raft with loaded with treasure, which confirmed the conquistadors belief that there were vast unknown riches in South America. This proof of wealth prompted the King of Spain to begin funding their expeditions. He captured the people on the raft, and they served as translators throughout the conquest.
In 1531, the Spanish attack the local people of Coaque, Ecuador and occupy the community. They camp there for 1 year waiting for reinforcements before traveling further south.
Inca city on the coast. It is pillaged by the conquistadors, where they learn that Atahualpa is at Cajamarca. Atahualpa hears about the spanish at Tumbes and sends a contingent of 6,000 warriors to meet them and escort them to Cajamarca.
Hernado de Soto
Member of Pizarros conquistadors. He was the first European to venture inside the Americas, the first to see the Mississippi, and went to Cajamarca and met with Atahualpa.
One of the native interpreters captured by Ruiz on the raft. He translates for the Spanish when they meet with Atahualpa in Cajamarca
Half brother of Francisco Pizarro, he kills Almagro on Francisco's orders.
Half brother of Pizarro. Governor of Quito. Found the mummy of Wiraqocha Inca. He was one of the more brutal conquistadors in his treatment of the native population. He rebelled against new laws put in place by a representative of Carlos V which were intended to protect the natives. Eventually defeated, captured, and beheaded for treason against the crown.
Vincente de Valverde
Catholic priest who traveled with the conquistadors. He tells Atahualpa to embrace Catholicism when they meet at Cajamarca. According to one account Atahualpa threw the bible on the ground when it did not speak, which prompted the conquistadors to attack.
Atahualpa tells the spaniards that he will give them a room filled up once with gold and four times with silver. ~$60mil in gold and $2mil in silver at today's value. While the ransom is being collected, the Spanish bring in more reinforcements.
Death of Atahualpa
Atahualpa was sentenced to death by burning, which was changed to death by strangulation after he agreed to convert to Catholicism. Atahualpa chose to be strangled to death rather than being put on fire so that he can be mummified.
King Carlos V
king of spain at the time of the conquest and primary financier of Pizarro's expedition. He was furious with Pizarro for killing royalty without his permission or direction.
Spanish plantations, spanish soldiers inherited land after conquest and they were able to do anything they want with it; ultimately resulted in slavery of indigenous people.
After killing Atahualpa the spanish put Waskhar's brother Thupa Wallpa in charge of the inca empire as a puppet ruler (459). later died of illness (460).
Son of Wayna Capac, picked by Spanish to be a puppet ruler but he didn't like the spanish and had trouble gaining support from the Inca nobility; 1563 he escapes from Cuzco to the mountains and becomes leader of the resistance.
Siege of Cuzco
1536-1537. The Siege of Cuzco was a lengthy affair. It took about 200,000 to 400,000 soldiers. at the end the Inca failed because some of the soldiers would return home for the agricultural season (462).
Ciuadad de Los Reyes
Founded by the spaniards, it is the original name of Lima, Peru. During the siege of Cuzco it was also attacked by a large force of Inca and their allies, but they were annihilated after a frontal assault.
Conflict among the conquistadors
Factions form supporting Pizarro or Almargo over disputes concerning the distribution of plunder and the division of land. Almargo takes over Cuzco in 1537 and installs Paullu Inka as a puppet ruler. Almargo is killed in 1538, and Pizarro is killed in 1541 as a result. Carlos V takes away conquistadors authority to administer the region, and establishes viceroys to rule on his behalf.
Juan Polo de Ondegardo
Magistrate of Cuzco 1558-1559. He tried to round up all of the royal Inca mummies after realizing they were still being worshipped, and ships many of them out of Cuzco. They were not destroyed outright because he feared that would spark a rebellion.
Real Hosptial of San Andres
Hospital in Lima where Ondegardo sent captured royal mummies. They were there for ~80 years, but were subsequently lost. Possibly buried on the hospital grounds.
The last stronghold for the Incan people, base of operations for Thupa Amaru and the resistance.
The last Inca emperor. Captured and beheaded by Viceroy Toledo.
Royal administrator post-conquest. After years of Inca resistance from Vilcabamba, his troops find the hidden city, capture the last Inca emperor Thupa Amaru, and behead him. He was also responsible for the system of reduccion (resettlement) of the inca people.(469)
The spanish moved indigenous people to new spanish settlements to make controlling them easier
Effects of conquest on native people
The relationship between the spanish and the natives was especially bad. During the 1570's and 1580's there was a population decrease of ~50% in some areas in the highlands. In some coastal regions, only about 5% of the pre-conquest population remained
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