Terms in this set (95)
This is the period of time required for the concentration or amount of drug in the body to be reduced by one-half
buy without a prescription
Minimum effective concentration
Amount of drug required to produce a therapeutic effect.
intended effect of a drug (beneficial)
legal noncommercial name for a drug
AKA Brand name, is the name under which the manufacturer markets the medication
Describes the drug's chemical composition and molecular structure
the percent of the drug that is active and not bound to protein-binding sites.
Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
syndrome of side effects seen in patients on psychotropic meds that mime parkinsons. The symptoms include slowed movements, slowed speech and thought, flat affect, forward cant to the head and shoulders when walking and oily skin combined with seborrheic dermatitis.
extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS)
also known as extrapyramidal side effects (EPSE), are drug induced movement disorders that include acute and tardive symptoms
nosocomial infection (HAIs)
An infection that is acquired in a hospital setting
The lowest concentration of drug reached in the body after it falls from its peak level, usually measured in a blood sample for therapeutic drug monitoring.
Drugs legally available only with a physician's order.
A decrease in the number of neutrophils
A decreased level of consciousness in which the patient is not completely asleep
A side effect of long-term use of traditional antipsychotic drugs causing the person to have uncontrollable facial tics, grimaces, and other involuntary movements of the lips, jaw, and tongue.
neuroleptic malignant syndrome
severe, potentially fatal reaction to antipsychotic drugs consisting of muscle rigidity, fever, altered consciousness, and improper function of the autonomic nervous system
a drug used to control temperature
These are prescribed for HTN. They increase renal excretion of sodium & water from body, decreasing total fluid volume. When less fluid in body, less pressure or force is needed to pump the blood thru the body.
sustained release medication
medications takien as a single dose, but designed to dissolve slowly releasing medications into the bloodstream over a specified period of time (usually 12-24 hours)
when therapy destroys beneficial resident species, resistnat microbes once in small numbers can now overgrow
schedule 1 drug
the highest potential for abuse; no accepted medical use
schedule 2 drug
high abuse potential; no refills without a new written prescription
schedule 3 drug
moderate abuse; refills can be phoned in to the pharmacy
schedule 4 drug
Lower potential for abuse and dependency, Has therapeutic usefulness, Prescription required, (Valium Xanax)
schedule 5 drug
low abuse potential; no prescription needed for adults over the age of 18
pregnancy drug categories
A (safest) B, C, D, X
rapid acting insulin
has an onset of action in 10 to 15 minutes with a peak in 1 to 2 hours and a duration of 4 to 6 hours? humalog, lispro
short acting insulin
Onset 30-60 min, Peak 2-4 hr, Duration 6-8 hr
intermediate acting insulin
NPH- 1-3 hours, 8-12 hours, 18-28 hour
long acting insulin
Lantus Onset 1 hour, duration 24+ hours,
(fluoxetine HCl) Depression or anxiety treatment Selective serotonin receptor inhibitor
prozac side effects
headache, nervousness, restlessness, insomnia, blurred vision, tremors, GI distress, sexual dysfunction
A narcotic, the primary active chemical in opium. Heroin is made from morphine.
morphine side effects
sedation, euphoria, dyphoria, constipation, urinary retention, miosis (constrict pupils), respiratory depression, hypotension, bradycardia, bronchoconstriction, emesis (low doses), anti-emetic (high doses)
In CNS only, inhibits COX (enzyme that forms prostaglandins). End result: decreased pain & fever <overdose can harm liver>
acetaminophen side effects
hepatotoxicity due to liver metabolism
Antiarrythmic (CHF) digoxin
fatigue, bradycardia, anorexia, arrhythmias, nausea
Dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting when sitting up or standin
Ototoxicity (ringing), hypokalemia, hypotension, photosensitivity, diarrhea, muscle spasms
CNS Depressant; Non-Barbiturate; Another Trade name for Diphenhydramine hydrochloride.
Muscle wasting, osteoporoses, spike in glucose levels, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, glaucoma, insomnia, delayed wound healing
kaopectate side effects
Docusate calcium: ANTIDIARRHEAL
Bulk Forming Laxative
(Ranitidine) Anti-ulcer agent
(Famotadine) Anti-ulcer agent
Headache, diarrhea, dizziness, drowsiness
This drug is used for thyroid supplementation in hyperthyroidism. Treatment or suppression of goiters & thyroid cancer. Replaces or supplements thyroid hormones. Increases metabolic rate of body tissues. Promotes gluconeogenesis. Increases utilization and mobilization of glycogen stores. Stimulates protein syntheses. Promotes cell growth & differentiation. Aids in development of brain and CNS.
Albuterol Beta Agonist (B2)(Lungs)
versed side effect
Benzo for Preoperative sedation
Nausea, hiccup, blurred vision, cough, headache
Atypical antipsychotics CLOZAPINE
warfarin, Anticoagulant - oral for prevention of blood clots
Celecoxib (Non-Steriodal anti inflammatory <NSAID>)
cox 2 blocker
-Hypoglycemic agent; Lowers triglyceride and LDL level
-same effects as aspirin, but fewer stomach problem
-substances that promote urinary water loss and decrease BP
Any of a class of drugs that prevent the stimulation of the adrenergic receptors responsible for increased cardiac action. are used to control heart rhythm, treat angina, and reduce high blood pressure
Blocks ACE enzyme,also blocks angiotensin II and bradykinin. Lowers blood pressure
an antidepressant drug that acts by blocking the reuptake of serotonin so that more serotonin is available to act on receptors in the brain
Behavioral stimulants that reduce depression by inhibiting the action of an enzyme called MAO, which normally breaks down and deactivates norepinephrine and serotonin
A group of highly addictive drugs derived from the poppy plant that are used as pain relievers, anesthetics, and sedatives.
anti-anxiety drugs that depress CNS and induce relaxation and sleep; often prescribed to relieve tension, sleep problems, anxiety, panic attacks
Also called sympathomimetic agents, these drugs mimic or stimulate the sympathetic nervous system. They include epinephrine, dopamine, dolutamine, and ephedrine. Adrenergic drugs have two effects: alpha and beta.
beta adrenergic drugs
stimulate beta adrenergic receptors; contain EPI
Treatment of asthma: useful in crisis but effective only for brief periods and overuse can reduce effeciency
Drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
Among the most widely used drugs in the world. Effective in many inflammatory and immune diseases. Most common use is in treatment of asthma where inhaled corticosteroids are used as first line therapy
used in the treatment of nausea and vomiting
-antagonize effects of histamine at H1 receptor
narcotic cough suppressants
Portions of the nervous system that, when stimulated, can cause constriction of blood vessels., Nerve receptors that control vasaoconstriction, pupil dilation, and relaxation of the GI smooth muscle
Acetylcholine Receptor Antagonists
s/e dry mouth, drying resp secretions, increased pulse, blurred vision, restlessness, constipation
bulk forming laxatives
Can be taken long term without problems
Absorb water into the intestine, which causes increased bulk, which distends bowel to initiate reflex bowel activity and promotes bowel movement.
emollient stool softener
type of laxative that moistens hard stools
drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but imparing memory and judgement
blocks effect of dopamine by blocking its receptors
A class of psychotropic medications used for the treatment of schizophrenia and other disorders that involve psychosis.
bactericidal, interfering w/ cell wall-building ability; selective toxicity
-- bactericidal and bacteriostatic (depending on dose used and specific drug involved)
- similar action to penicillin (avoid if allergic to penicillin)
-bactericidal, can cause
ototoxicity (usually IRREVERSIBLE) and
nephrotoxicity (likely reversible)
-used in serious infections for gram-negative coverage)
A class of antibiotics which contain sulfur. They are bacteriostatic (they stop the growth (reproduction) of bacteria, but do NOT kill them).Broad spectrum but widespread resistance.
Decreases platelet aggregation, may prevent MI -asprin, plavix
cox 2 enzyme inhibitor
COX-2 selective inhibitor is a form of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that directly targets cyclooxygenase-2, COX-2, an enzyme responsible for inflammation and pain
A pathological increase in vascular resistance or cardiac output which increase BP.
ends in lol???
- is a mood disturbance characterized by exaggerated feelings of sadness, despair, lowered self esteem, loss of interest in former activities, and pessimistic thoughts
3 Signs: rigidity, tremors, bradykinesia; progressive degeneration at basal ganglia, loss of neurons from substania nigra; mean onset 55-60 years - more men than women; progresses over 5 stages
not enough dopamine
A condition of having an excess of T4 hormone in the body. Causes high blood-pressure, hyperactivity and an inability to put on weight / maintain healthy body fat storage
-Slow metabolic rate, Wt gain, hypothermia, bradycardia, sensitivity to cold, fatigue. Puffiness of hands and face.
-Deficiency of TH resulting in a slow down of body metabolism.
No insulin produced by the body
Cause: Partial genetic, Partial lifestyle, decreased insulin sensitivity
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CHAPTER 9 - ANTI-INFECTIVES: ANTIBACTERIAL DRUGS