73 terms

Basic Biological Principles

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Eukaryote
These are cells where the genetic material is contained in membrane-bound
nuclei.
Homeostasis
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
Mitosis
The process of nuclear division in cells that produces daughter cells that are
genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell.
nucleus
large structure in some cells, houses cells genetic information controls cells activities
Endocytosis
This is the process where cells engulf material from outside their cell membranes
Endosymbiosis
A theory by which prokaryotes gave rise to the first eukaryotic cells. Chloroplasts in plants and mitochondrion in other eukaryotes believed to have once been prokaryotic organisms engulfed by larger prokaryotic cells.
Energy
the capacity for doing work. it may be transformed from one form to another
Evolution
This is a change in genetic makeup of a population or species over time
Flagella
These are singular, long, whiplike organelles that many organisms use for motion
Endoplasmic Reticulum
this is a membrane bound organelle in eukaryotic cells that is the production and processing center of proteins and some lipids
Growth
this is an increase in some quanity over time. in organisms this is a result of mitosis
Heterotrophic cell
a cell that can not produce its own energy, it must be consumed
Lleucoplast
this is a type of plastid found in plant cells it lacks pigments and is used to store starch
Lysosome
these are organelles that digest macromolecules
Golgi body
This organelle serves to process and package lipids and proteins in the cell
Organelle
This is any functional structure within the confines of a cell; literally a.
"small organ;" it usually has a membrane-based structure
Metabolism
These are all biochemical processes of an organism
Mitochondrion
An organelle found in most eukaryotic cells described as
"cellular power plants", because their primary function is to convert organic materials into energy in the form of ATP
mRNA
This is one form of RNA that that serves as a template for protein synthesis. It is transcribed from DNA and then translated at ribosomes to produce a protein.
Multicellular
Organisms consisting of more than one cell, and having
differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. Most life that can be seen with the naked eye is this.
Nucleic Acid
This is a macromolecule that holds cell information in a coded form. Made of sugar, phosphate and nitrogen-containing bases.
Nucleolus
This organelle, found in the nucleus, produces ribosomes
Organ
A group of tissues working together to perform a similar
function
Organ system
An __________ ___________ is a group of organs which work together to carry out particular vital tasks within in an organism.
Organism
Any living thing with one or more cells
Photosynthesis
This is a chemical process that uses light to process carbon dioxide in plants.
Respiration
This is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and its environment
Selective permeability
This is an ability of a plasma membrane to allow some
substances to cross across the membrane more easily than others
system
This is a group of interdependent organs with similar function
tissue
This is a group of cells with similar structure or function
Replication
This is the copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
waste
This is any unwanted substance or toxin that is expelled from organisms.
RNA
A single stranded nucleic acid that plays a role in protein synthesis
Zygote
This is the first cell of a new individual, formed by the fusion of a sperm and egg at fertilization
Response
This is a biological reaction due to a stimulus.
Prokaryote
These are organisms where the genetic material is not bound by a nucleus. They are usually unicellular.
Plant
This is any living thing without the power of locomotion that obtain energy from sunlight or make their own food.
Somatic cell
This is any cell in a living organism that is not part of
reproduction.
Plasmid
This is a circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is capable of independent replication. It usually occurs in bacteria.
Plant Cell
This kind of cell has a large central vacuole and a cell wall.
Ribosome
his organelle synthesizes proteins.
Robert Hooke
He was an English scientist, who first described and named cells in 1665, when he observed a slice of cork.
Vacuole
This is a tiny fluid-filled cavity in the cytoplasm. It can be used for storage of biochemicals.
Stimulus
This is the action that causes a response.
Permeability
This is the ability to allow certain ions or chemicals into or out of a cell.
Reproduction
This is the biological process of creating a new organism.
Protein Synthesis
This is a two-part process that ends in the assembly of proteins at the ribosomes within cells. The first part, transcription, begins in the nucleus, when the DNA code is transferred to mRNA. The second part, translation, takes place at the ribosomes, where both mRNA and tRNA work to assemble proteins
Unicellular
Literally, one-celled.
Pseudopodia
This is a shape-changing cell structure used by amoebas to move and to engulf food.
ATP
This is the main energy storage and transfer molecule in the cell
Cell
This is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, and are sometimes called the "building blocks of life."
Cell membrane
A thin, flexible, semipermeable barrier around the cell which regulates what enters and leaves the cell
Cell theory
States that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic unit of life, and cells come from pre-existing cells
Cell wall
This structure provides support and protection for plant cells
Central vacuole
These are large compartments within some eukaryotic cells that capture and store food or toxic materials maintain turgor pressure, and dispose of unwanted substances from the cell.
Cellular respiration
This is the process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
Autotrophic cell
A cell that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds
Chlorophyll
This is a green pigment in chloroplasts that traps light energy from the sun.
Chemical Energy
Energy stored in chemical bonds of molecules.
Differentiated cell
These are cells which have become modified and specialized within an organism.
Chromosome
This is the structure in the cell nucleus that houses a cell's genetic information.
cilia
These are short hair-like organelles on the surface of a eukaryotic cell used for locomotion or sensory functions.
Development
This is the process that organisms undergo beginning with
fertilization and continuing until an organism reaches maturity. It includes cell division and differentiation.
Animal
This is an organism that is made of many parts but cannot make its own food. They are classified by whether they have a backbone or not.
Cytoplasm
This is a homogeneous, generally clear jelly-like material that fills cells and serves as the broth of the cellular soup.
Adaptation
This is an inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival.
Caspid
This is the protein shell of a virus.
Cytoskeleton
This is a scaffolding of protein fibers that help a cell keep its shape, and assist cell division and cell movement.
Chloroplast
This is a plastid with chlorophyll in plants that photosynthesize.
Animal cell
This kind of cell does not have a large central vacuole.
Centrioles
These are barrel shaped microtubules in most animal cells, that organize the spindles during cell division.
DNA
This holds an organisms hereditary information
Bacteria
One celled organisms that reproduce by fission