73 terms

Basic Biological Principles


Terms in this set (...)

These are cells where the genetic material is contained in membrane-bound
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
The process of nuclear division in cells that produces daughter cells that are
genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell.
large structure in some cells, houses cells genetic information controls cells activities
This is the process where cells engulf material from outside their cell membranes
A theory by which prokaryotes gave rise to the first eukaryotic cells. Chloroplasts in plants and mitochondrion in other eukaryotes believed to have once been prokaryotic organisms engulfed by larger prokaryotic cells.
the capacity for doing work. it may be transformed from one form to another
This is a change in genetic makeup of a population or species over time
These are singular, long, whiplike organelles that many organisms use for motion
Endoplasmic Reticulum
this is a membrane bound organelle in eukaryotic cells that is the production and processing center of proteins and some lipids
this is an increase in some quanity over time. in organisms this is a result of mitosis
Heterotrophic cell
a cell that can not produce its own energy, it must be consumed
this is a type of plastid found in plant cells it lacks pigments and is used to store starch
these are organelles that digest macromolecules
Golgi body
This organelle serves to process and package lipids and proteins in the cell
This is any functional structure within the confines of a cell; literally a.
"small organ;" it usually has a membrane-based structure
These are all biochemical processes of an organism
An organelle found in most eukaryotic cells described as
"cellular power plants", because their primary function is to convert organic materials into energy in the form of ATP
This is one form of RNA that that serves as a template for protein synthesis. It is transcribed from DNA and then translated at ribosomes to produce a protein.
Organisms consisting of more than one cell, and having
differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. Most life that can be seen with the naked eye is this.
Nucleic Acid
This is a macromolecule that holds cell information in a coded form. Made of sugar, phosphate and nitrogen-containing bases.
This organelle, found in the nucleus, produces ribosomes
A group of tissues working together to perform a similar
Organ system
An __________ ___________ is a group of organs which work together to carry out particular vital tasks within in an organism.
Any living thing with one or more cells
This is a chemical process that uses light to process carbon dioxide in plants.
This is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and its environment
Selective permeability
This is an ability of a plasma membrane to allow some
substances to cross across the membrane more easily than others
This is a group of interdependent organs with similar function
This is a group of cells with similar structure or function
This is the copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
This is any unwanted substance or toxin that is expelled from organisms.
A single stranded nucleic acid that plays a role in protein synthesis
This is the first cell of a new individual, formed by the fusion of a sperm and egg at fertilization
This is a biological reaction due to a stimulus.
These are organisms where the genetic material is not bound by a nucleus. They are usually unicellular.
This is any living thing without the power of locomotion that obtain energy from sunlight or make their own food.
Somatic cell
This is any cell in a living organism that is not part of
This is a circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is capable of independent replication. It usually occurs in bacteria.
Plant Cell
This kind of cell has a large central vacuole and a cell wall.
his organelle synthesizes proteins.
Robert Hooke
He was an English scientist, who first described and named cells in 1665, when he observed a slice of cork.
This is a tiny fluid-filled cavity in the cytoplasm. It can be used for storage of biochemicals.
This is the action that causes a response.
This is the ability to allow certain ions or chemicals into or out of a cell.
This is the biological process of creating a new organism.
Protein Synthesis
This is a two-part process that ends in the assembly of proteins at the ribosomes within cells. The first part, transcription, begins in the nucleus, when the DNA code is transferred to mRNA. The second part, translation, takes place at the ribosomes, where both mRNA and tRNA work to assemble proteins
Literally, one-celled.
This is a shape-changing cell structure used by amoebas to move and to engulf food.
This is the main energy storage and transfer molecule in the cell
This is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, and are sometimes called the "building blocks of life."
Cell membrane
A thin, flexible, semipermeable barrier around the cell which regulates what enters and leaves the cell
Cell theory
States that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic unit of life, and cells come from pre-existing cells
Cell wall
This structure provides support and protection for plant cells
Central vacuole
These are large compartments within some eukaryotic cells that capture and store food or toxic materials maintain turgor pressure, and dispose of unwanted substances from the cell.
Cellular respiration
This is the process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
Autotrophic cell
A cell that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds
This is a green pigment in chloroplasts that traps light energy from the sun.
Chemical Energy
Energy stored in chemical bonds of molecules.
Differentiated cell
These are cells which have become modified and specialized within an organism.
This is the structure in the cell nucleus that houses a cell's genetic information.
These are short hair-like organelles on the surface of a eukaryotic cell used for locomotion or sensory functions.
This is the process that organisms undergo beginning with
fertilization and continuing until an organism reaches maturity. It includes cell division and differentiation.
This is an organism that is made of many parts but cannot make its own food. They are classified by whether they have a backbone or not.
This is a homogeneous, generally clear jelly-like material that fills cells and serves as the broth of the cellular soup.
This is an inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival.
This is the protein shell of a virus.
This is a scaffolding of protein fibers that help a cell keep its shape, and assist cell division and cell movement.
This is a plastid with chlorophyll in plants that photosynthesize.
Animal cell
This kind of cell does not have a large central vacuole.
These are barrel shaped microtubules in most animal cells, that organize the spindles during cell division.
This holds an organisms hereditary information
One celled organisms that reproduce by fission