Ch. 20 Margin Questions

Terms in this set (9)

•The needs of total war led to the expansion of government authority.
•The destruction of life and property wrought by the war led to a widespread disillusionment among European intellectuals with their own civilization.
•The political map of Europe was radically altered with the collapse of the German, Russian, and Austrian empires, creating space for new nations in Central Europe, including Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia, all of which were formed around an ideology of national self-determination.
•In Russia, the strains of war triggered a vast revolutionary upheaval that launched world communism.
•The Treaty of Versailles, which brought the war to a close, also established the conditions that generated the Second World War.
•The massacre and deportation of one million Armenians by the Ottoman Empire set a precedent on which Nazi Germany later built.
•The collapse of the Ottoman Empire during World War I resulted in the political f ragmentation of the Middle East and the emergence of the states of Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Jordan, and Palestine.
•Conflicting promises made by the British to both Arabs and Jews concerning Palestine set the stage for an enduring struggle over that ancient and holy land.
•Millions of colonial subjects who had participated in the war had gained new military skills and political awareness and returned home with less respect for their rulers and with expectations for better treatment as a reward for their service.
•In East Asia, Japan had emerged strengthened from the war, with European support for its claim to take over German territory and privileges in China.
•Japan's increased influence in China enraged Chinese nationalists and among a few sparked an interest in Soviet-style communism, for only the new Communist rulers of Russia seemed willing to end the imperialist penetration of China.
•World War I brought the United States to center stage as a global power.
• More than World War I, World War II was a genuinely global conflict with independent origins in both Asia and Europe.
• The Second World War was more destructive, with some 60 million deaths—six times the deaths in World War I.
• More than half the casualties of World War II were civilians, reflecting a nearly complete blurring of the traditional line between civilian and military targets as compared to World War I.
• In World War II, governments mobilized their economies, their people, and their propaganda machines even more extensively than in World War I.
• The Holocaust of World War II was an act of genocide that outstripped even the Armenian genocide of World War I in scale.
• World War II rearranged the architecture of world politics even more than had World War I.
• After World War II, Europe was effectively divided, with its western half operating under an American umbrella and the eastern half subject to Soviet control.
• In contrast to the aftermath of World War I, Europe's role in the world was greatly diminished in the decades that followed World War II, with European colonies in Asia and Africa achieving their independence.
• World War II allowed for the consolidation and extension of the communist world in a way that World War I did not.
• More effective worldwide organizations like the United Nations and the World Bank took shape after World War II, as compared to the League of Nations that was created after World War I.
• The United States took on a more dominant presence on the world stage after World War II as compared to the post-World War I era.