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P Practice Test 4
Terms in this set (46)
Is a nucleophile a lewis acid or base?
Ex: alpha and beta glucose anomers
-multiple stereocenters and are identical in all respects except for the configuration at one of the stereocenters, these molecules must be diastereomers
Do aldehydes or hemiacetals have a larger partial positive charge?
- due to electron withdrawal by the double-bonded oxygen atom via induction and resonance.
What trend explains why the acidity of hydrogen halides increases down the periodic table?
The acidity increases because the ionic radius increases which stabilizes the base because the negative charge is distributed over a larger volume
Is the intestinal lumen considered to be inside or outside?
inside the cell .
Fe(CO)6Cl dissociates into two species, both charged, when dissolved in water. Which is the most likely expression for the dissociation constant (Ksp)?
Ksp = [Fe(CO)6+][Cl−]
What enzyme catalyzes the formation of Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate?
What happens to Vmax in uncompetitive inhibition ?
What happens to Vmax in noncompetitive/allosteric inhibition
What happens to Vmax in competitive inhibition ?
It remains the same (and the K-substrate increases); you can overcome by increasing the substrate concentration
What is the pKa of Ka=1.8*10^-5 ?
=- log(10^-5) - log(1.8) = 5-log(1.8)=4.7
True/False... The dilution (by H2O) of a buffered solution affect its pH?
-the pH only depends upon the ratio concentrations of acids:bases
How does increasing rotational inertia aid in balance?
It helps increase balance because it decreases the tendency to rotate.
For a stationary support pole what is it's net torque?
it would have to be 0 otherwise it would accelerate rotationally
Bernoulli's equation can be applied to the flow of air around a sail because
Because air has a low viscosity
How do you decrease the pressure in front of a sail?
By increasing the air velocity
Rank the following halides in terms of nucleophilicity :
I Cl- Br- F-
**as you go down a period the nucleophilicity increases because the acidity increases/ionic radius increases
Which of the following best describes the cascade that leads to cellular apoptosis after exposure to intra- or extracellular death signals?
Initiator caspases cluster together and activate each other. The activation of initiator caspases leads to the activation of effector caspases, which cleave proteins at aspartic acid sites, triggering apoptosis.
What happens in the 4 phases of cardiac muscle contraction ?
phase 0: Voltage Na+ channels open and Na+ cause the depolarization of the cell
phase 1: (initial repolarization) - voltage K+ open back to resting MP = -90
phase 2: (plateau ) = Ca+2 channels open so Ca+2 slows down the repolarization but the K+ remain open
phase 3: Ca+2 channels close and K+ stay open and the cell rapidly depolarizes
What do monoamine oxidases degrade?
Would increased osmolarity of interstitial fluid in the kidney medulla lead to increased or decreased water reabsorption?
It would lead to increased absorption because as the filtrate passes through the water will move to the highly osmolar interstitial fluid.
Which of the following hormones acts on target cells via a second-messenger system?
A) Thyroid hormone
*Thyroid hormone, a protein hormone, is an exception.
In a male individual with Down's Syndrome (trisomy 21), how many chromosomes would be visible at metaphase I of spermatogenesis?
An individual with trisomy 21 has an extra copy of chromosome 21 (three total copies). During metaphase I, the developing gametes are still diploid (separation of homologues has not yet occurred), so this individual would have the normal 46 chromosomes plus the extra copy of chromosome 21, for a total of 47 chromosomes
What is parallel processing?
parallel processing describes the simultaneously processing of different aspects of a stimulus
What does glycogen phosphorylase do?
catalyzes the rate limiting step of glycogenolysis(breakdown of glycogen into G1P and gylcogen) —the release of glucose-1-phosphate from glycogen via its action on terminal α(1→4) linkages.
What does Glucose-6-phosphatase do?
hydrolyzes glucose-6-phosphate, resulting in the release of a phosphate group and free glucose for export from the cell--> from the liver (because glucose must leave the liver as glucose)
What does Phosphoglucomutase do?
it is involved in both glycogenolysis and glycogenesis by interconverting glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate,
What does Pyrophosphatases do ?
acid hydrolase family of enzymes that cleave diphosphate bonds
sequence for embryogenesis?
Fertilization → blastulation → gastrulation → neural tube formation → somite formation
What phase in mitosis is the formation of microtubules crucial for?
metaphase ; microtubule polymerization is what causes the chromosomes to move towards the center
memory of one's personal experiences
memory of concepts and information
gestalt approach to visual perception problems
symmetry, continuity, and common fate
What are the major brain biological developments that occur during adolescence?
cell proliferation (particularly in the limbic system), myelination, and pruning
individuals employ a front stage and back stage self when interacting with others
loss of self-awareness in social groups
Which of the following is not a cluster B personality disorder?
A) Antisocial personality disorder
B) Borderline personality disorder
C)Histrionic personality disorder
D) Paranoid personality disorder
D. Paranoid personality disorder
Research indicates that professional burnout can result in thoughts of suicide. Suicidal ideation is most often associated with a psychological disorder in which broad category?
A) Anxiety disorders
B) Mood disorders
C) Personality disorders
D) Psychotic disorders
Thoughts of death or suicide are often associated with major depressive disorder, an example of a mood disorder
fear of that perceived to be foreign;negative towards immigrants
What is the main premise of the behavioral theory of personality?
personality is derived from the interaction between a person and his/her environment
What part of the brain is most affected by the degenerative effects of Alzhimer's?
Is travel an agent of socialization?
No: but school, family, and media is
having a single status results in conflicting expectations; if a bisexual female reports feeling social pressure to be either lesbian or straight, which causes her significant stress, she is experiencing conflicting expectations about her bisexual identity
conflicting societal expectations for multiple statuses held by the same person. For example, a male kindergarten teacher—societal expectations for being a man and being a kindergarten teacher easily come into conflict
The hippocampus is a subpart of which brain structure?
The limbic system
What is the basal ganglia associated with?
It is associated with voluntary movement, procedural memory, and emotions; not associated with episodic memory (like the hippocampus is)
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