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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
10th grade Chapter 12: Reconstruction and Its Effects, 1865-1877
Chapter 12: Reconstruction and Its Effects, 1865-1877 terms to know
Terms in this set (41)
Agency set up to aid former slaves adjust to freedom. Provided food and clothing, established schools and helped freed slaves find jobs
Head of the Freedmen's Bureau
17th President of the United States-southerner form Tennessee Lincolns VP- became president after Lincoln was assassinated
Lincolns Plan for Reconstruction
10 percent plan
1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction; required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned.
A small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
Immediately after the war, Southern state legislatures enacted sets of laws to regulate free blacks and ensure white supremacy. These laws were known as _____.
The period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
Civil Rights Bill of 1866
This bill was designed to destroy the Black Codes by giving African Americans full citizenship. As expected, President Johnson vetoed the bill, which Congress simply overturned.
Approved in January 1865. It banned slavery thoughout the nation
Granted citizenship to all people born in the U.S. and declared that no state could deprive any person of life, liberty and property without due process of law
voting rights; all citizens have the right to vote no matter what, color, race, previous condition of servitude. women could still not vote
A leader of the Radical republicans along with Thaddeus Stevens. He was from Massachusetts and was in the senate. His two main goals were breaking the power of wealthy planters and ensuring that freedmen could vote
A Radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the Radical Republicans in Congress., Man behind the 14th Amendment, which ends slavery. _______ and President Johnson were absolutely opposed to each other. Known as a Radical Republican
Reconstruction Act of 1867
Law created by Radical Republicans that was originally vetoed by Johnson but overridden by Congress; established harsher requirements for Confederate states; divided Southern states into military districts; required states to vote to ratify 14th amendment
It divided the South into five military districts that were commanded by Union generals. It was passed in 1867. It ripped the power away from the president to be commander in chief and set up a system of Martial Law
Black Mississippi senator elected to the seat that had been occupied by Jefferson Davis when the South seceded, 1st African American senator
Derogatory term for pro-Union Southerners whom Southern Democrats accused of plundering the resources of the South
A derogatory term applied to Northerners who migrated south during the Reconstruction to take advantage of opportunities
An action by the House of Representatives to accuse the president, vice president, or other civil officers of the United States of committing "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."
Conservative white democrats many of them planters or businessmen who reclaimed control of South following the end of reconstruction
40 acres and a mule
William Sherman gave all former slaves ------- as an apology for their prior work as slaves
Ku Klux Klan
A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights
Tenure of Office Act
1866 - Enacted by radical Congress, it forbade the president from removing civil officers without consent of the Senate. It was meant to prevent Johnson from removing radicals from office. Johnson broke this law when he fired a radical Republican from his cabinet, and he was impeached for this "crime".
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
System of farming in which a person rents land to farm from a planter.
Compromise of 1877
-Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river; as long as Hayes became the president
A test administered as a precondition for voting, often used to prevent African Americans from exercising their right to vote.
A requirement that citizens pay a tax in order to register to vote.
Jim Crow Laws
State laws in the South that legalized segregation.
Plessey v Ferguson, 1896
This is a famous Supreme Court Case about a man who was only 1/8th black but was told to move from the white section of a train & was later jailed for refusing to do so. Plessy filed a suit & the case went to the Supreme Court & the court made a huge decision/precedent- that set up the "Separate but Equal Doctrine"
Describe Andrew Johnsons Presidency
He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote.
What were the terms of the 10 percent Plan
- Pardon all confederates except high ranking officials and those accused of war crimes as long as they pledged allegiance to the union
- 10 percent of eligible voters (1860 election) must take an oath of allegiance
- New state governments must be formed
What was the Radical Republicans for Reconstruction
Wade- Davis Bill
What were the terms of the Wade-Davis Bill
- Majority of voters must take an oath of allegiance
- Full citizenship and voting rights for African Americans
Challenges faced by newly freed slaves
- Reunification of families
- No formal education, very few salves could read or write
- Prejudice and animosity led to segregation and black codes
- no savings and a struggle to find employment
Panic of 1873
Economic panic caused by overexpansion and over speculation, causing the nation's largest bank to collapse (and bringing with it many smaller banks, business firms and the stock market)
Secretary of War- fired by Andrew Johnson
Winner of the popular vote in the 1877 election.
Editor of the New York Tribune
nominated by Liberal Republicans and Democrats for Presidential candidate, but did not win election
Rutherford B Hayes
Winner of the 1877 Election
Did not win the popular vote!
Recommended textbook explanations
The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century (California Edition)
Gerald A. Danzer, J. Jorge Klor de Alva, Larry S. Krieger, Louis E. Wilson, Nancy Woloch
United States History: Beginnings to 1877
Deborah Gray White, William Deverell
The American Vision: Modern Times
Alan Brinkley, Albert S. Broussard, Donald A. Ritchie, James M. McPherson, Joyce Appleby
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