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25 terms

Science - Unit 2 Vocabulary

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Mitosis
Stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides
Meiosis
The process that occurs in sex cells (sperm & egg) by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half
Cell
The basic unit of structure and function in living things
Cell Theory
A widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things
Selectively Permeable
A property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot
Diffusion
The process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Osmosis
The diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
Active Transport
The movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
Passive Transport
The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy
Alleles
The different forms of a gene
Heredity
The passing of traits from parents to offspring
Gene
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
Genetics
The scientific study of heredity
Heterozygous
Having two different alleles for a trait (hybrid)
Dominant Allele
An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
Genotype
An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations
Trait
A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes
Hybrid
An organism that is heterozygous for a particular trait
Purebred
An organism that always produces offspring with the same form of a trait as the parent
Homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a trait (purebred)
Recessive Allele
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
Phenotype
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits
Punnett Square
A chart that shows all of the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
Magnification
The ability to make things look larger than they are. (Multiply magnification of eye piece by magnification of objective).
Resolution
The ability to clearly distinguish the individual parts of an object. (Turn the coarse adjustment, then the fine adjustment).