Bladder Outlet Obstruction
Terms in this set (21)
Is bladder outlet obstruction only anatomical?
No, it may also be functional
Which sex is more prone to bladder outlet obstruction?
In men over 60 years, what is the most common cause of bladder outflow obstruction?
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
What causes bladder outlet obstruction in females?
Iatrogenic obstruction, pelvic prolapse, bladder neck obstructions, benign lesions, neoplasms, dysfunctional voiding, Parkinson's, detrusor muscle dyssynergia
What is the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in females?
What causes bladder outlet obstruction in males?
Anatomic obstruction in prostate, bladder or urethra; dysfunctional voiding, Parkinson's
Where in the anatomy is bladder outflow obstruction?
From the neck of the bladder to the urethral meatus
Under which broad headings do the symptoms of bladder outflow obstruction come?
Voiding and storage (lower urinary tract symptoms LUTS)
What are the symptoms of storage bladder outflow obstruction?
Increased frequency of urination, nocturia, increased urgency, urge incontinence, dysuria
What are the symptoms of voiding bladder outflow obstruction?
Poor stream, hesitancy, intermittency, double voiding, post void dribbling, sensation of incomplete evacuation, acute urinary retention
What are some drugs that will affect voiding of urine?
TCA's, anti-psychotics, anti-cholinergic, anti-histamine, anti-Parkinson's, opioids, alcohol, sympathomimetic drugs, NSAIDs
What serum substance is tested for in an individual with bladder outflow obstruction?
What imaging techniques would you use in a patient with bladder outflow obstruction?
Magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, cystoscopy, retrograde urethrogram
What is urine cytology?
Examining the cells in urine
What is urine flowmetry?
It is a diagnostic procedure used to calculate the flow rate of urine over time i.e., flow rate ml/s over time s
What is urodynamics?
It is studies to examine the function of the bladder and urethra
What are some clues to look for in benign prostate hyperplasia?
Trabeculations, hypertrophy, stones (urolithiasis), inflammation, enlarged prostate
Is benign prostate hyperplasia a risk for prostatic cancer?
No, it is not
What are some complications of benign prostatic hyperplasia?
Bladder hypertrophy, diverticula formation, hydronephrosis, stones, obstructive uropathy, secondary infections
What are the steps that lead from benign prostatic hyperplasia to the decreased oxygen and increased hypoxia inducible factor-alpha?
Benign prostatic hyperplasia ,bladder outflow obstruction, detrusor muscle hypertrophy and collagen deposition, decreased blood flow to detrusor, ↓oxygen and ↑HIF-alpha
What does the treatment of bladder outflow obstruction ultimately depend on?
The underlying cause of the obstruction; may be medial or surgical