31 terms

Psychology: Chapter 7, Memory

Vocabulary from Holt McDougal's, Psychology Principles in Practice, Chapter 7, Memory
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Memory
the process by which we recollect prior experiences and information and skills learned in the past
Episodic Memory
memory of a specific event
Ex: what you ate for dinner last night, last quiz
Flashbulb Memory
events that are so important it seems as if a "flash goes off" and we photograph the scene in every detail
Ex: First time you feel in love, 911
Generic Memory
general knowledge or information that can be recalled
a.k.a "explicit memory"
Procedural Memory
memory of learned skills that does not require conscious recollection.
Ex: Riding a bike
a.k.a "implicit memory"
Encoding
the translation of information into a form it can be used
Storage
the maintenance of encoded information over a period of time
Maintenance Rehearsal
repetition of information in order to keep from forgetting it
Ex: rehearsing lines
Elaborative Rehearsal
relating information to information you already know well
Ex: Using vocabulary in everyday sentences
Retrieval
locating stored information and returning it to conscious thought
Context-Dependent Memory
remembering something after going to a certain place
Ex: Going to your Middle School and recalling the good grades you recieved
State-Dependent Memories
memories that are retrieved because the mood in which they were originally encoded is recreated
Tip-of-The-Tongue Phenomenon
knowing something, but not being able to retrieve it or verbalize it, because it wasn't stored properly
Sensory Memory
the immediate, initial recording of data that enter through our senses
Iconic Memory
visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second
Eidetic Memory
the ability to remember with great accuracy visual information on the basis of short-term exposure
a.k.a. "photographic memory"
Echoic Memory
the brief memory of something a person has just heard.
Short-term Memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, before information is stored or forgotten
a.k.a "working memory"
Primacy Effect
the tendency to recall the initial items in a series
Recency Effect
the tendency to recall the last items in a series
Chunking
the organization of items into familiar, manageable units
Interference
new information appears in short-term memory and takes the place of what was already there
Long-term Memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.
Schema
the mental representation that we form by organizing bits of information into knowledge
Recognition
identifying objects or events that have been encountered before
Recall
to bring something back to mind
Relearning
when you forget something, and then learn it again faster than the first time you learned it
Decay
the fading away of a memory over time
Infantile Amnesia
the unexistant knowledge of information before you were 3
Ex: Not remembering your birth
Anterograde Amnesia
loss of the ability to store new information, usually caused by trauma
Ex: 50 First Dates
Retrograde Amnesia
the unexistant knowledge of how someone was led to a traumatic event
Ex: An injured football player, wouldn't remember what happened before the play where he was injured