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Cell Wall synthesis Inhibition
Terms in this set (14)
What are the 4 main stages of cell wall synthesis?
synthesis of precursors, transport across the membrane, insertion into existing polymer, crosslinking of subunits.
What are the two antibiotics that inhibit the synthesis of cell wall precursors?
Fosfomycin and Cycloserine.
What is the mode of action of Fosfomycin in the inhibition of cell wall synthesis?
It is a analogue of phosphoenolpyruvate which covalently attaches to the thiol group of cysteine in MurA enzyme and irreversibly inhibits the enzymatic function.
What is the mode of action of Cycloserine in the inhibition of cell wall synthesis?
Binds to Alanine racemase and D-ala-D-ala sythetase due to similar structure to D-alanine.
What is the mode of action of Bacitracin in the inhibition of cell wall synthesis?
Binds to Bactoprenol and inhibits the dephosphorylation of the lipid. No regeneration of active lipid carrier means no NAM and NAG can be carried across the membrane?
What is the mode of action of Glycopeptides such as Vancomycin in the inhibition of cell wall synthesis?
Vancomycin binds D-ala-D-ala in peptidoglycan and prevents the additions of monomers into existing polymer. Inhibiting the action of transglycosylases and transpeptidases.
What is the mode of action of Beta-lactam antibiotics (such as penicillin) in the inhibition of cell wall synthesis?
Bind to the penicillin binding proteins preventing the removal of the terminal D-alanine.
What is Fosfomycin active against?
Staphylococi, Streptococci, H. influenza.
What is Cycloserine active against?
Mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and leprae.
What is Bacitracin active against?
Gram positives, Strep. pyogenes.
What is Vancomycin active against?
Narrow spectrum. Gram positives e.g. MRSA, C. dif., Enterococcus.
What is Penicillin active against?
Meningococcus. Streptococcus. Pneumococcus.
How are some bacteria resistant to Beta lactam antibiotics?
Beta lectamases. Modified target sites PBP2.
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