60 terms

Chapter 9

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Terms in this set (...)

abbess
the head of a convent
Alexander Nevsky
prince of Novgorod who defeated a German invading army in northwestern Russia in 1242; the Mongol ruler rewarded _____ with the title of grand-prince; _____'s descendants became princes of Moscow
Balkans
region in southeastern Europe that includes Bulgaria and Serbia; conquered and settled by the Bulgars in 679
bishopric
a group of Christian communities, or parishes, under the authority of a bishop
Carolingian Empire
lands ruled by Charlemagne; much of western and central Europe
challenge
a summons that is often stimulating, inciting, or threatening
Charlemagne
Frankish king known as Charles the Great ruled 768-814 who greatly expanded his empire to cover much of western and central Europe; in 800, he became "emperor of the Romans," symbolizing the unification of Roman, Christian, and Germanic elements.
chivalry
in the Middle Ages, the ideal of civilized behavior that developed among the nobility; it was a code of ethics that knights were supposed to uphold
Clovis
Strong military leader who established the Frankish kingdom; the first Germanic ruler to convert to Christianity (around 500) and gain support to the Roman Catholic Church
common law
a uniform system of law that developed in England based on court decisions and on customs and usage rather than on written law codes; replaced law codes that varied from place to place
Constantinople
capital of the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine Empire
contract
a binding agreement between two or more people or parties
Crusade
military expedition carried out by European Christians between in the Middle Ages to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims
document
an original or official paper that gives proof of or support to
Eleanor of Aquitaine
heiress to the duchy of Aquitaine; married two kings (King Louis VII of France and King Henry II of England) and mother of two kings (Richard and John of England)
enabled
made possible
enormous
huge; vast; immense
ensure
to make sure
estate
one of the three classes into which French society was divided before the revolution: the clergy (first ____), the nobles (second ____), and the townspeople (third ____)
excluded
not counted or included
feudal contract
under feudalism, the unwritten rules that determined the relationship between a lord and his vassal
feudalism
political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages, when royal governments were no longer able to defend their subjects; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
fief
under feudalism, a grant of land made to a vassal; the vassal held political authority within his fief
Gregory I
pope from 590 to 604; known as _____ the Great, he strengthened the power of the pope, was leader of the city of Rome and its surrounding territories, and increased his spiritual authority over the Church in the West
Henry II
king of England from 1154 to 1189; expanded the king's power and the power of the royal courts
Hungary
region in eastern Europe; settled by the Magyars
infidel
an unbeliever, a term applied to the Muslims during the Crusades
Justinian
emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire and ruled from 527 to 565; reestablished the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean during his reign; famous for codifying Roman law
Kiev
city in what is today Ukraine; settled by Viking leader Oleg in the early tenth century and became the Rus state known as the principality of ____
knight
under feudalism, a member of the heavily armored cavalry
legal
relating to law; founded on law
Magna Carta
the "Great Charter" of rights, which King John was forced to sign by the English nobles at Runnymeade in 1215
Magyars
People from western Asia who moved into central Europe at the end of the 9th century, settled in Hungary, and invaded western Europe
missionary
a person sent out to carry a religious message
monasticism
the practice of living the life of a monk
monk
a man who separates himself from ordinary human society in order to dedicate himself to God; _____ live in monasteries headed by abbots
Normandy
coastal region in northwestern France; settled by the Norseman (Vikings) in the 900s
nun
a woman who separates herself from ordinary human society in order to dedicate herself to God; ____ live in convents headed by abbesses
ordeal
a means of determining guilt in Germanic law, based on the idea of divine intervention
Otto I
Saxon king of Germany; crowned emperor of the Romans in 962; led to the Holy Roman Empire that was really made up of many small, independent states in Germany and Italy
Palestine
region in the eastern Mediterranean conquered by Justinian
Paris
city in France; center of the Capetian dynasty of French kings
Parliament
in thirteenth-century England, the representative government that emerged; it was composed of two knights from every county, two people from every town, and all of the nobles and bishops throughout England
patriarch
the head of the Eastern Orthodox Church, originally appointed by the Byzantine emperor
Pépin
mayor of the palace who assumed the Frankish kingship for himself and his family in the 700s
Philip II Augustus
French king from 1180-1223 who expanded fought the English to gain the French territories of Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Aquitaine
pope
the bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church
Pope Innocent III
initiated the Fourth Crusade from 1202-1204, which resulted in the Crusaders sacking Constantinople, a Christian city
Saint Benedict
monk who wrote a set of rules in the sixth century that guided his community of monks; the Benedictine rule became the model for monasticism in the Catholic Church
Saint Bernard of Clairvaux
monk who enlisted King Louis VII of France and Emperor Conrad III of Germany to join the Second Crusade, which as a total failure
Saladin
Muslim leader of Egypt who took the Holy City of Jerusalem in 1187; led to the Third Crusade, which failed; _____ permitted Christian pilgrims free access to Jerusalem
schism
the separation between the two great branches of Christianity that occurred when the Roman Pope Leo IX and the Byzantine patriarch Michael Cerularius excommunicated each other in 1054
Slavs
Originally a single people in central Europe, they divided into three main groups: Polish and Bohemian kingdoms in the west; Moravia in the east; Croats, Serbs, and Bulgarians in the south
Syria
region in the eastern Mediterranean conquered by Justinian
Thomas à Becket
archbishop of Canterbury and the highest-ranking English clergyman; murdered by knights of Henry II
tournament
under feudalism, a series of martial activities such as jousts designed to keep knights busy during peacetime and help them prepare for war
vassal
under feudalism, a man who served a lord in a military capacity
Vikings
Norseman of Scandinavia (a Germanic people) who invaded many areas of Europe in the 9th century. These warriors were excellent shipbuilders and sailors. They settled in Normandy, France.
wergild
"money for a man," the value of a person in money, depending on social status; in Germanic society, a fine paid by a wrongdoer to the family of the person he or she had injured or killed
William of Normandy
Defeated King Harold to become king of England in 1066 the Normans spoke French, but gradually the Anglo-Saxons and French created a new English culture