earth science review
Terms in this set (49)
What instrument should be used to monitor atmospheric pressure changes as a weather system approaches?
Some jet airplanes fly in a layer of the atmosphere where temperature generally increases with altitude.
What is this layer of the atmosphere?
In which layer of the atmosphere does most of Earth's weather occur?
A. the exosphere, which is the outermost layer
B. the troposphere, which is the lowest layer*
C. the thermosphere, which has the highest temperature
D. the stratosphere, which contains a sublayer of ozone
Atmospheric greenhouse gases help heat the atmosphere by
A. increasing the amount of solar radiation reaching Earth.
B. storing energy produced by human activity.
C. absorbing infrared radiation released by Earth.*
D. increasing the average density of air.
Scientists theorize that the original atmosphere of Earth was stripped away by the solar wind shortly after
the formation of the planet. The Jovian planets are far enough from the Sun that the solar wind has less of an
impact. Studies of the Jovian planets suggest the early atmosphere of Earth was mainly composed of which
A. oxygen and argon
B. hydrogen and helium*
C. carbon dioxide and nitrogen
D. sulfur dioxide and water vapor
Which of these gases, on average, has the lowest volume in the atmosphere of Earth?
C. water vapor
D. carbon dioxide*
The temperature of the stratosphere increases with altitude because of the presence of
B. water vapor.
D. carbon monoxide.
Which of these statements best describes temperature as elevation in the atmosphere increases?
A. Temperature remains constant with elevation in the thermosphere.
B. Temperature remains constant with elevation in the mesosphere.
C. Temperature generally decreases with elevation in the stratosphere.
D. Temperature generally decreases with elevation in the troposphere.*
Which gas makes up the greatest percentage of Earth's atmosphere?
C. nitrous oxide
D. carbon dioxide
Which layer of the atmosphere contains the greatest amount of water vapor?
Water vapor sometimes condenses into stratus clouds that are in contact with the ground. What forms as a
result of this process?
Two characteristics of the Nevada climate are low humidity and abundant sunshine. This combination of
characteristics most likely results in
A. low altitude fog.
B. rapid evaporation.*
C. high elevation snowfall.
D. frequent thunderstorms.
Which statement explains what will most likely happen to the hydrosphere in an area where air
A. Earthquake intensity will decrease.
B. Mountain formation will decrease.
C. Rock weathering will increase.
D. Evaporation will increase.*
The process by which water vapor in the atmosphere cools and becomes a liquid is called
Storms transport water in the form of rain. The energy that starts this process comes from the
1. How do the conditions for a tornado differ from the conditions for a hurricane?
A. Tornadoes never form when there is rain, while hurricanes always form with rain.
B. Tornadoes form under low pressure, while hurricanes form under high pressure.
C. Tornadoes form in a stable atmosphere, while hurricanes form in an unstable atmosphere.
D. Tornadoes form over land, while hurricanes form over bodies of water.*
Which condition is associated with most warm fronts?
A. tornado formations
B. low temperatures
C. violent air mass collisions
D. cloud formations bringing precipitation*
What is the primary cause of rainstorms?
A. Earth is heated by the Sun.*
B. Mountains direct moist air upward.
C. Water forms droplets when cooled.
D. Most of Earth is covered with water.
What major and potentially catastrophic events can be predicted to occur in the Northern Hemisphere
between the months of June and November?
C. asteroid impacts
D. volcanic eruptions
Which most likely contributes to the rotational pattern of a hurricane that develops in the Atlantic Ocean?
A. Gulf Stream
B. Coriolis effect*
C. low relative humidity
D. highpressure systems
Hurricanes form over water and lose wind speed when they move over land. What does this pattern
A. More solar radiation strikes oceans than land.
B. Heat from inside Earth warms oceans more than land.
C. Oceans transfer more energy to the atmosphere than land does.*
D. Oceans transfer both heat and chemical energy to the atmosphere.
The latitudes at which hot deserts are found are defined in part by enough direct solar heating to produce
the high temperatures. Which of these is another primary factor that defines these deserts?
A. almost total erosion of all land material above bedrock
B. extremely rapid rainfall percolation through surface material
C. soil toxicity concentrated enough to suppress foodweb formation
D. location where atmospheric convection results in a dry air mass*
When air rises over the open ocean, a low pressure system is formed. Which factor increases the potential
of a low pressure system developing into a hurricane in the Northern Hemisphere?
A. cool ocean currents circulating towards the equator
B. increased volcanic activity in the upper latitudes
C. cold air moving south from the North Pole
D. warm water temperatures in the tropics*
An air mass travels north over the Pacific Ocean, from the tropics, and then eastward across the United
States. Which weather pattern can be expected?
A. cool and dry
B. warm and dry
C. cool and wet
D. warm and wet*
Earth can be viewed as an engine and heat exchange is part of the engine system. Which would be an
example of a transfer of energy from the atmosphere to the lithosphere?
A. A volcano erupts in the state of Washington.
B. An earthquake takes place off the coast of Japan.
C. A wild fire scorches a prairie in the upper Midwest.
D. A hurricane moves from the Gulf of Mexico onto land.*
2. High altitude cirrus clouds are primarily formed from which substance?
A. carbon dioxide gas
B. solid ice crystals*
C. nitrogen compounds
D. ozone molecules
The average rainfall in Nevada is about 7 inches per year. The most likely reason for the low amount of
rainfall is the
A. high elevations of deserts.
B. location north of the equator.
C. lack of moisture in the air.*
D. great distance from the ocean.
Which phase change in the atmosphere forms clouds?
Which of these weather instruments is best used to predict a future change in local weather?
What information best helps a meteorologist predict the possibility of tornadoes developing in a certain
A. current wind conditions
B. type of clouds in the sky*
C. percent humidity in the air
D. amount of rainfall
Which invention has done the most to help predict weather and warn people of approaching storms?
In which way is any single observation of wind speed best described?
A. It is an indication of a future weather condition.
B. It is an indication of the amount of humidity.
C. It is an indication of weather at a specific time.*
D. It is an indication of the existing climate.
Some meteorologists use visual aids such as diagrams, maps, and charts when they present the weather
to television viewers. How do different types of visual aids help the viewers understand complex weather
A. by combining knowledge from past reports with new information
B. by providing information collected by other meteorologists
C. by checking the accuracy of each part of the weather report
D. by showing many components that impact the weather*
A student hears on the radio that the outside temperature is 32oC. What type of weather will the student
most likely expect when she steps outside?
A. cool, rainy fall weather
B. cold, snowy winter weather
C. hot, sunny summer weather*
D. spring weather with flowers blooming
Cumulonimbus clouds often form along cold fronts. Which type of weather is most likely to occur along a
A. moderate temperature with mild breezes
B. storms with hurricane winds
C. rain with possible severe thunderstorms*
D. high temperatures with low winds
Juan noticed that sunny skies suddenly became stormy. Which most likely happened when the weather
changed in this way?
A. Winds weakened.
B. Humidity decreased.
C. Air pressure dropped.*
D. Temperatures increased.
The drag of wind results in which feature of ocean surface currents?
A. movement of water away from the equator
B. cyclical variations in the height of high tides
C. reduction in velocity with distance from Earth's poles
D. deflection of water toward the direction of airflow*
Which is responsible for creating wind?
A. wave action
B. solar energy*
C. trees blowing
D. gravitational force
Which of the following are narrow belts of strong winds found in the upper troposphere?
C. trade winds
D. jet streams*
Which factor causes surface ocean currents?
A. the Sun
B. the wind*
C. the Moon
Going north from the equator, hot, moist climates are replaced by hot, dry climates. The boundary between
these two climate types is determined by which factor?
A. altitude above sea level
B. types of local plant cover
C. circulation patterns of regional air masses*
D. distance to the nearest mountain range
Which of these events have the most influence on regional climate?
A. frequent tornadoes
B. ocean trade winds*
C. winter snowstorms
D. temperature inversions
The Coriolis Effect deflects wind direction. How does this process impact ocean surface currents?
A. The wind deflects the currents to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern*
B. The wind deflects the currents to the left in the Northern Hemisphere and to the right in the Southern
C. The wind deflects the currents to the left in both hemispheres.
D. The wind deflects the currents to the right in both hemispheres.
Which of these best explains the cause of convection currents in Earth's atmosphere?
A. Heat from Earth's core heats the land only at the equator.
B. Glaciers moving away from the poles cool Earth unevenly.
C. Sunlight is more concentrated in some places on Earth than others.*
D. The light and heat reflected from the Moon varies as the Moon changes phases.
Hurricanes are large, powerful storms that form as they travel over warm ocean waters. What do oceans
add to make hurricanes so strong?
A. salt and water
B. wind and tides
C. heat and moisture*
D. waves and flooding
Ocean currents, prevailing wind patterns, and other atmospheric disturbances are initially caused by which
A. differences in the cycles of the Moon
B. gravitational pull of the Sun
C. incoming solar radiation*
D. ozone layer depletion
When air is heated, it will most likely
A. expand and fall.
B. expand and rise.*
C. condense and fall.
D. condense and rise.
When visiting the beach, Felicity observed that a breeze blew in from the ocean during the day and out
toward the ocean at night. Which factor is most responsible for the direction of land and sea breezes in
A. the revolution of Earth around the Sun
B. the uneven heating between the land and water*
C. the gravitational pull of Earth on the atmosphere
D. the daily rise and fall of tides in a regular pattern
A strong wind from the north blows in a straight south direction. However, to an observer, the wind appears
to be moving to the southwest. What accounts for this shift in wind direction?
A. the spin of Earth on its axis changing direction
B. the rotation of Earth beneath the layer of air*
C. the ozone layer focusing solar energy, causing the wind to shift
D. the local mountains pushing the wind to the side as it moves through the state
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