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how we choose to live our lives with vitality and meaning

dimensions of wellness

physical, emotional, intellectual, spiritual, interpersonal/social, and environment

physical dimension of wellness

running, commute, sports, swimming, exercise, physical activity, nutrition

emotional dimension of wellness

feelings, honest with self and others, self esteem, acceptance

intellectual dimension of wellness

open to new ideas

spiritual dimension of wellness

since of morals and beliefs

interpersonal/social dimension of wellness

good social/communication skills, spending time with family

environment dimension of wellness

where you live, awareness, transportation, involved in changing environment


any situation that triggers physical and emotional reactions

stress response

the physiological reaction that accompanies a stressor


stress triggered by a pleasant stressor; positive


the stress triggered by an unpleasant stressor; negative

types of stressors

major life changes (moving, new friends), daily hassles (traffic, errands), college (academic, financial), internal (pressure on ourselves, negative self talk), interpersonal and social (date, argument), environment (noisy neighbors, cramped apartments)

managing stress strategies

regular physical activity, nutrition, adequate sleep, spiritual/social wellness, self talk, relax body

physical activity

any body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles and requiring energy (taking notes, walking to class, on computer)


planned, structured, repetitive movement of the body designed to improve or maintain physical fitness/activity (more specific type of physical activity)

physical fitness

a set of physical attributes that allows the body to adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort (more effort, greater the benefits)

how active should i be

30 minutes of moderate-vigorous PA 5 days/week OR vigorous cardio for 20 mins 3x/week, 8-10 strength training twice/week

moderate physical activity

about 70-80% of max heart rate, breathing hard but can still talk, best defined as activity that is 3-6 METS

vigorous physical activity

anything over moderate, breathing hard and can't talk

components of physical fitness

cardiorespiratory endurance (lungs and heart), muscle strength (strength training- bike, run, swim), muscle endurance (how long can go for, strength or cardio), flexibility (range of motion, stretching), body composition (fat mass vs lean body mass)

principles of training

specificity, progressive overload, reversibility, individual differences

specificity training

what are you doing, how are you going to increase, type and amount, same activity over time

progressive overload training

are you challenging self, add appropriate rate, increasing amounts, increasing time, gets harder, not specifically same workout, relies on the idea that the rate of improvement in a fitness program depends upon your initial fitness level

FITT principle

Frequency: how often, Intensity: how hard, Time: how long (duration), Type: mode of activity, reflects progressive overload

reversibility training

"use it" or "lose it", improvements are lost when demands are lower

individual difference training

everyone is not created equal, just because you don't have the same strengths doesn't mean you can't do it, non-responders are individuals who do not benefit from exercise


chemicals in foods required for growth and function

essential nutrients

must come from food: carbs, protein, fat, vitamins

nonessential nutrients

sufficient amounts that can be mad in body: amino acids, cholesterol


naturally occurring plant chemicals that may reduce risks of cancer or illness

nutrients that contains energy

carbohydrates, protein, fat/lipids

nutrients that doesn't contain energy

vitamins, minerals, water

calorie contents

Carbs= 4 kcal, Lipid/Fats= 9 kcal, Protein= 4 kcal, Alcohol= 7 kcal

designing a healthful diet

adequate, balanced, varied, moderate

adequate diet

are you getting what you need, provides enough energy, nutrients, etc., needs macronutrients


describes the portion of the energy intake that should come from each macronutrient, energy intake that should come from macronutrient is Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)

balanced diet

contains combination of foods which provide proper balance of nutrients, includes energy density & nutrient density foods

energy density

number of calories in certain amount of food

nutrient density

the amount of nutrients per calorie value of the food

calculating calorie content

if a food contains 3 grams of fat and has total 155kcal. there is 9 kcal in fat, so multiply 3x9=27 fat kcals. divide this by the total calories 27/155= 17% fat

recommended dietary allowance (RDA)

meets the average daily nutrient intake

tolerable upper intake level (UL)

highest average daily nutrient intake level to pose no risk of adverse health effect to almost all individuals


science and study of food (nutrients) and its connection to physiology, health, and well being


refers to eating many different types of foods each day


necessary amounts of carbs, fats, and protein for maintaining healthy weight

calculate daily protein requirements

determine body weight. convert pounds to kilograms (lbs/2.21=kg). multiply by 0.8 g/kg for average adult requirement

SMART goals

Specific, Measurable, Action-oriented, Realistic (losing 1lb/week for 3 months), Timeline (short term/long term)

short-term goals

less than 3 months

long-term goals

4 months or more


i want to eat, the psychological desire to consume specific food


i need to eat asap, the physiological sensation that prompts us to seek food and eat


feeling of fullness and satisfaction from food, can be from: liquids, carb, fibers, mixed meals, fat content, protein content

supermarket savvy

shop the periphery not aisle ends, shop once per week, bulk food options, unit pricing

requirements on food labels

statement of identity (new, whole grain), net contents (weight), ingredients, info of food manufacture, nutrition info

nutrition fact panel info

must include serving size, % daily value, trans fats

choosing food based on labels

choose food with least number of ingredients, choose food with less than 30% fat

problems with food labels

portions are not standardized, serving size set by manufactures

ecological models of behavior

suggests individuals are influenced by a combination of interpersonal variables, public policy factors, sociocultural factors, and physical environment factors

different levels of intervention

public policy (legislation and other social regulations to influence physical activity), physical environments (altering physical characteristics), sociocultural environments (workplace, community)

workplace encouraging physical activity

require showers and changing rooms, offer gym facilities, workplace culture

community encouraging physical activity

increase funding for walk/bike trails, mandate for building to be within 10 minutes apart

personal environment wellness

reusable shopping bags, showers vs baths, turn off water when brushing teeth or shaving, reusable coffee cups/water bottles, unplug electronics when not in use

heart system

right side- pulmonary circulation, left side- systemic circulation, blood pressure

blood pressure

the force exerted by blood on the walls of blood pressure, 2 phases: systole (contracting) and diastole (relaxing), best time to take is right when you wake up which is when its at its lowest

anatomy of cardiorespiratory system

arteries (major freeways), veins (transport oxygen back to heart), capillaries (smaller streets off freeways), alveoli

benefits of cardio test

heart (stronger), lung capacity (more oxygen capacity), diseases and illness (usually drop), immune function (slightly increased), metabolic rate (increase), fat and carb burners, tension and stress, self esteem (goes up), energy levels, body image (more positive), self conception and depression (decreases), psychological health improved 1 year (maintain)

factors affecting lung capacity

gender (size), chest cavity size, altitudes, hemoglobin (O2 carrying capacity), air quality, cardio training

gold standard

VO2 max test, the maximal rate at which oxygen can be consumed per minute, 3 types of field test: 1.5 mile run/walk, 1 mile walk test, 3 minute step test

cross training

multiple dimensionally, comfort zone, specificity issues, injury

interval training

variable intensity with bursts of higher intensity, sprint intervals; rest intervals, ladders, supplement training

why stretch

posture, flexibility, recovery, blood flow, decrease muscle soreness (DOMS), injury, mental relaxation


the range of motion (ROM) in a joint or group of joints, 4 types: static, dynamic, ballistic, PNF, involves moving your joints through a full range of motion

static stretching

most common form, can increase long-term flexibility by ability to hold a stretch near the end ROM, do after activity, 2 types: active, passive

passive static stretching

muscles are stretched by a force applied by an outside force, outside force is in control

active static stretching

muscles are stretched by the contraction of opposing (antagonist) muscles, safest form of stretching, you are in control

dynamic stretching

continuous movement through a natural range of motion, do after warm up and before workout, increases blood flow to the muscles by leg extension, exercise without weights, arm circles, leg swings, squats, most teams do this before games

ballistic stretching

bouncing movement, used by athletes performing fast and explosive movements, running through a movement you do on regular basis

PNF stretching

proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, contract muscles then relax to facilitate the stretch

FITT for Flexibility

F: 2-3 days(minimum) or 5-7 days (ideal) per week, I: gentle tension, T: 15-30 second/stretch and 2-4 reps/stretch, T: major muscle groups

workout plan

1. warmup 2. dynamic stretch 3. weights/cardio 4. cool-down 5. static stretching

how to prevent low-back pain

warm up thoroughly, progress gradually, stretch hamstrings and hip flexors, strengthen abs and lower back, do low-back/core exercise at least 3 days/week

IQ Test

verbal/linguistic ability, logical/mathematical skills

Howard Garner's Theory of multiple intelligence

musical, spatial, body-kinesthetics, intrapersonal, interpersonal

brain plasticity

ability of the brain to adapt continually to changing environment, plastic means changeable, changes as you challenge it, there is no age limit, brain can change physical size and neutral activity, keep your brain active by mental wellness training

sensitive periods

brain must receive appropriate sensory input from the environment to develop normally, appropriate sensory input: patterned stimuli, colored visuals, sounds, object to touch, interaction, can get over stimulated from being too involved

wellness behaviors for brain

physical activity: improved brain function and increased leaning and exam performance, sleep: brain regions involved in learning are reactivated during sleep, sleep deprivation can inhibit learning, adequate sleep allows new skills to be incorporated into long-term memory, naps can improve subsequent performance on a given learning task, brain is resting and making connections when we sleep, nutrition: eat for energy, whole nutrient dense foods, multivitamins, de-clutter to improve focus and concentration

dietary guidelines in college

maintain calorie balance over time to achieve and sustain a healthy weight, focus on consuming nutrient-dense foods and beverages

common nutrient problems for college students

skipping the first meal, increased evening eating, overweight and obesity, consuming majority of calories in one meal or immediately before bed (body doesn't like to digest while trying to sleep- doesn't like to multitask) causes: higher body fat levels, harder to stay awake in class, poorer quality of sleep, more frequent colds, and limits fitness gains, inadequate whole fruit and vegetable consumption, drinking too many of your calories (coffee, smoothies), inadequate whole fruit and veggie consumption, high fat and processed food intake

solutions for common nutrient problems

eat within 1-2 hours of waking up (bring breakfast or something small with you, start with liquids), keep food in dorm rooms, combine a high fiber, high carbs, and high protein food, try higher fiber and protein foods for evening snacks, keep fruit and veggies in room, add veggies to fast food or restaurant meals, choose foods with added veggies, drink more water throughout the day to prevent thirst, seek lower calories alternative in the beverages you enjoy, eat more whole fruit and veggies (has water in it so don't have to drink just water), have at least 3 in diet: low fat protein, vegetables, grain based carbs, whole fruit, low fat dairy

types of fiber

insoluble: gets water out and moves through body, soluble: gooey mess, in oatmeal, want more insoluble


the non-digesible parts of plants, moves things along through body, adequate fiber intake can prevent disease and illness (colon cancer, diabetes), the AI for fiber is in women 25 g and men 30 g, americans tend to lack fiber in their diet


vitamins have no energy content, can be helpful if your food intake is not balanced or sporadic, tops-off vitamins that are insufficient in your diet, 1 per day (avoid mega-doses), not governed by FDA, best to get vitamins from foods but a good insurance policy, not all vitamins are created equal


calories are less if black, danger of calories when adding stuff and getting fancy drinks

evaluating body size and shape

measuring a person's healthful body weight: body composition, body mass index (BMI), assessment of fat distribution pattern (this is genetic)

body composition

relative proportion of lean body mass to adipose mass, use: dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, skin folds, bod pod, under water weighing (used to be golden), bioelectric impedance analysis, minimum % body fat levels for males is 4-5% and females is 11-13%, spot reduction doesn't work- body composition is key


underweight= <18.5, healthy weight=18.5-24.9, overweight= 25-29.9, obese=30>

body fat distribution patterns

apple pattern: not as good, increased risk of chronic disease, pear pattern: better because fat is not around heart or liver, decreased risk of chronic disease

genetic contribution to body weight

account for about 25% of a person's fat, thrifty gene theory: doesn't want to spend energy so stores more fat, set point theory: body doesn't like to stay in weight range, whatever genetics doesn't account for the environment does

body types

3 types: ectomorph, mesomorph, and endomorph


light frame, small joints, lean muscle mass, hard to gain weight, "faster" metabolism


large bone structure, lean and more defined muscles, naturally "athletic looking" physique, gains fat and muscle more easily than ectomorphs


gains muscle and fat easily, is generally short and "stocky", round/thick physique, hard to lose fat, "slower" metabolism, solid and generally soft body

contributions to weight management

basal metabolism (BMR)= energy needs to maintain body function, about 2/3 of total energy expenditure, influenced by: genetics, body composition, biological sex and age, growth and hormone, history of diets, caffeine/alcohol/medication, environment

minimum kcal need to support muscle mass

females= about 1300-1500 kcal/day, males= about 1600-1900 kcal/day, just to survive without physical activity, starving the body if eating less

thermic effect of food

mechanical breakdown, chemical breakdown, absorption and delivery, conversion of products to ATP

categories of physical activity

exercise, none exercise or activities of daily living: fidgeting, talk with hands, occupational activity (construction), leisure activity

calorie needs

depends on: size of muscle mass required for a job, body weight, FITT principle, how much time you spend sitting

weight loss

aim for body fat loss, 1 lbbody fat= 3500 calories, recommended weight loss per week = 1-2 lbs, decrease intake by 500/day or increase output by 500/day or combine energy out and energy in

weight gain

proteins and carbs, healthy fats (polyunsaturated, omega-3&6), eat every 2 hours- starting early and ending late, increase consumption of fluids in addition to regular meals, 500-1000 calories + per day (gradually in 100 kcal increments)

metabolic rate

starts decline at age 20, about 3-4% per decade

body image

the values one has toward their bodies, a person's perception about his or her body, thoughts and feelings, how much you value your body and whole see our own body, level of satisfaction towards physical self (perception, thoughts, feelings, subjective)

influences of body image

parents, gender roles, peers, role models, media

social norms

men socially referred to as: strong, powerful aggressive courageous, smart, tall dark and handsome, women socially referred to as: beautiful/pretty, cute, sweet, emotional, loving, nurturing

body image across the lifespan

perception of ourselves is lifelong and can fluctuate depending on time of lifespan, most vulnerable times: women= adolescence, pregnancy, postpartum, males= puberty, middle-age, kids become body conscious as young as 3 years old

eating disturbances

attitudes about food, weight, and body size lead to: very rigid eating, excessive exercise, jeopardizing health, happiness and safety

muscle dysmorphia

cognitive and behavioral phenomena, belief of not being sufficiently muscular and lean

symptoms of muscle dysmorphia

perception of weakness, self-esteem is dependent on size, check appearance frequently, avoid situations involving body exposure, abandon social commitments to adhere to their training schedule

positive influence of body image

develop a healthy lifestyle instead of dieting, shape and size doesn't determine your worth, be less critical of yourself and others, give yourself and others a compliment, view social and media messages critically, be kind to yourself, decrease judgement, conduct positive dialogue with others

muscle physiology

muscles consist of many muscle fibers (cells) connected in bundles, muscle fibers are made up of myofibrils

hypertrophy and atrophy

think about building muscle and losing muscle

slow-twitch fibers

are fatigue resistant, don't contract as rapidly and forcefully as fast-twitch fibers, are used in aerobic activities, move slow so doesn't get as tired, usually use blend of two fibers, endurance athletes use this

fast-twitch fibers

fatigue more quickly than slow-twitch fibers, contract rapidly and forcefully, are used in anaerobic activities, a lot more force than slow-twitch, majority of fibers are set at birth- determine what you are better at, strength athletes use this

motor unit

a motor neuron and all the fibers it is connected to, as more force is needed the more motor units are recruited

resistance/strength training

muscular strength, muscular endurance, functional strength, progress is dependent on genetics- not everyone will improve to the same extent, depends on muscle fiber distribution (fast-twitch adapt more readily), increased muscle mass and size of muscle fibers, increased utilization and coordination of motor units, increased strength of tendons, ligaments, and bones, not only do the muscles get stronger but it may take longer to see results

muscular strength

assessed by determining the 1-rep maximum (1RM)- the maximum resistance that can be lifted once, push yourself too hard too fast may hurt more than just the muscle but also the bone, tendon, etc.

muscular endurance

assessed by counting the maximum number of a muscular contraction

FITT principle for resistance training

F: 2-3 days/week, I: 40-80%, T: one complete movement of exercise, T: endurance vs strength,

Strength training

strength- how many you can do and how much weight, will not bulk you up, men will become bigger than women due to testosterone levels (10x more), women get lean and toned as the lack testosterone to build large muscles, helps maintain weight loss long-term due to increases in muscle/enzymes (BMR)

Cardio exercise

a combination of cardio and muscle fitness is the best exercise, cardio is effective for weight loss, will peak your metabolism for the time that you are active and the it returns to your resting metabolic rate


pain is bad- its okay to be sore but not for it to hurt, want to have a 'burn' in the target muscle, don't want to over exert yourself (form starts to go down), DOMS


fat cells will always stay the same (amount) but will decrease in size, fat cannot convert to protein or muscle, all macronutrients can be converted to fat if not used, check that your input and output are balance

Free weights vs machines

exercise machines are generally safer, convenient, and easy to do, free weights require more care, balance, and coordination

bals, balance boards, and bands

build strength, want to stay in the natural ROM, be careful not to hyperextend, balance and plank help stabilizing you

static (isometric) exercise

muscle contraction without a change in the length of the muscle

dynamic (isometric) exercise

muscle contraction with a change in the length of the muscle, concentric contraction- muscle applies force as it shortens (bicep curl), eccentric contraction- muscle applies force as it lengthens

program design

Step 1: complete a need/wants analysis (goals, timeline, history), Step 2: select training variables (ordered exercises: big before small, high skill before low skill, core at the end, muscle balance: push-pull, multi-joint vs single-joint), Step 3: evaluation and review (progressive overload, sty on program for 3-6 weeks then change it up, use a journal, SMART goals), consider weight, current fitness level, and any special health concerns

weight training safety

use proper lifting techniques, use spotters and collars with free wights, be alert for injuries, always warm-up, always cool down, learn to use/be a spotter, passive spotter- someone who isn't really paying attention while spotting

Eating before/during/after exercise

Before: most activity requires glucose, pre-fuel 1-2 hours before (carbs, low fat, protein, fluids), During: eat if exercise in morning or if longer than 45 min workout, 30-45 grams carb/hr, hydrate, 1lb=2 cups of water loss, losing >2% of body weight will have negative impact on quality, gains, and comfort, replace water with 3 cups per 1 lb lost during training, After: simple carb, protein, fluids, think about recovery plan, 30 minutes-1 hour body likes to have nutrients after workout, eat chocolate milk, PBJ, yogurt, fig newton, or fruit juice


long term movement in time, can be easily replaced by new generation


becomes popular relatively quickly

gadgets for physical activity

overload to muscles, consider motivation purchase or participate, if it claims to need minimal effort or time then most likely its too good too be true, may be more harm then good by different positions

electronic muscle stimulation (EMS)

impulses sent to nerves resulting in muscle contraction, may temporarily improve muscle tone, exercise is still important, not approved for weight loss, girth reduction, or obtaining "rock hard" abs, have not seen weight loss or other positive effects that it says it provides

exercise videos

Pros: availability, variety, cost effective, Cons: limited educational provided, watching the video, lack of personal attention


Pros: intense workout at home, progressive levels, Cons: DOMS, form and technique, no modification, marketing, rhabdomyolysis


rapid destruction of muscle resulting in myoglobin in urine, when kidneys are so over work that the body shuts down

toning shoes

instability helps active muscles, no difference between toning and running shoes

fitness trends for 2010

exergaming (catering to the needs of older generation), cost conscious workouts, boomer fitness, express workouts <30 min (circuits), personal training, functional strength training, tech-based workouts (ipod, PDA, metabolic testing device)

The Biggest Loser

Pros: accountability (24 hour coverage), competition (with huge incentive), uses activity and change of food intake, motivating for participants/role models, turns them into active individuals, Cons: rate of weight loss, weight loss vs body composition, dangerous (if attempt these same ways), doesn't translate to real life, safe weight loss is 2lbs/week, may loose more weight if obese than people at normal weight

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