22.1 science

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climate definition
the weather conditions for an area over a long period of time
Difference between climate and weather?
climate is a pattern that varies on a much longer basis while weather conditions vary from day to day
How are climates described?
by using average temperature and precipitation
yearly temperature range meaning?
another way scientists describe climate, or the difference between highest and lowest monthly averages
what are the factors that have the greatest influence on both temperature and precipitation?
Latitude, heat absorption and release, and topography
what does solar energy determine?
the temperature and wind patterns of an area, which influence the average annual temperature and precipitation
the higher the latitude of an are is, the ___________ the angle at which the suns rays hit the earth is and the ___________ the amount of solar energy recieved by the area is
smaller, smaller
why are temperatures at the equator high?
at the equator the sun rays hit earth at a 90 degree angle
why are temperatures at the poles low?
the suns rays hit earth at a smaller angle at the poles and solar energy is spread over a larger area
why are days shorter and temperatures lower during winter months than during summer months?
the tilt of earths axis during winter in the northern hemisphere, ares of earth at high northern latitudes directly face the sun for less time than during summer
why do belts of cool dense air form at latitude near the poles while belts of warm, less dense air form near the equator?
because earth receives different amounts of solar energy at different latitudes
what weather conditions do winds affect?
precipitation temperature and cloud cover
what happens at doldrums?
equatorial belt of low pressure, air rises and cools, water vapor condenses, so this region has a large amount of precipitation that generally increases as latitude increases
what happens at subtropical highs?
20*and 30 degrees in both hemispheres, the air sinks, warms, and decreases in relative humidity. Little precipitation occurs in these regions. This region has most of the worlds deserts.
What happens in the middle latitudes?
45* to 60 degrees latitude. warm tropical air meets cold polar air, which leads to belts of greater precipitation. abouve 60 degrees latitude, the air masses are col and dry, average precipiation is low
what happens to global wind belts as seasons change?
shift in north or south direction
what happens to wind and pressure belts when they shift?
belts of precipitation associated with them also shift.
what affects the amount of solar energy that an area recieves?
latitude and cloud cover
why does land heat faster than water?
land heats faster than water and can reach a higher temp in the same amount of time. bc land surface is opaque and unmoving.
Surface ocean water is transparent and moves continuosly . waves , currents , and other movements replace warm surface water with cooler water from ocean depths, which prevents the surface temp of the water from increasing
temp of land and ocean influence what?
amount of heat that the air above the land or ocean absorbs or releases, the temp of the air then affects the climate of the area
specific heat?
is the amount of enery needed to change the temp of 1g of a substance by 1c
average temps of land and water vary because?
differences in loss of heat through evaporation. Evaporation affects water surfaces much more than it affects land surfaces
if winds consistent blow towars shore, what happens?
ocean currents have a strong effect on air masses over land, like when combinations of water give northwestern europe a high average temp for its latitude
during el nino, what happens in the pacific oean regin?
typhoons, cyclones, and floods
during el nino, what happens in indonesia and australia?
droughts
la nina affects what?
cool water phase, afffects weather patterns like hurricans
el nino?
warm water ohase, unually warm water temp in pacifit ocean eastern.
during summer and winter, land loses and gains heat quickly or slower than ocean does?
quicker
monsoon?
wind blows toward land in sumer bringing heavy rains blows aaway from land in winter, bringing dry weather
topography definition? and what does it influence?
surface ffeatures of the land, influence climate, mountains can control flow of air
elevation def? relationship between elevation and temperature?
height of land forms above sea level, temperature decreases as elevation increseas
chinooks?
dry warm winds flow down slopes of rocky mountains
foehn?
dry winds that flowdown slopes of alps
rain shadow?
air that flows down the other side of the range is usually warm and dry while air rises, cools and releases moisture
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