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Ch.11 section 1 and 2 study guide
Terms in this set (38)
fertile area in a desert, watered by a natural well or spring
journey to Yathrib in which Muhammad and his followers went to
based on belief in one god
places of worship of Muslim people
pilgrimage to Mecca
efforts in God's service
thriving pilgrimage center/town in between caravan routes, served as a major trade route
people/shepherds among which Muhammad worked with
square stone building in the mosque in Mecca
wealthy widow that Muhammad married who had a prosperous Caravan business
sacred text of Islam teaching God's power and passion
People of the book
what Muslims believe Christians and Jews were, spiritually superior to polytheistic idol worshippers
Islamic system of law regulating moral conduct, family life, government, and business practices
successor to Muhammad
slender towers of Mosques
mosque official who climbed to the minarets and gave a daily prayer
first caliph who was able to fully reunite Arabs and conduct series of military conquests
Battle of Tours
battle in which Muslim advancement into Europe had been halted
Fatima and Ali
believed to be the only true successors, son and daughter of Muhammad
Muslim mystics who sought communion with God through meditation, fasting, and other rituals
family who set up dynasty ruling Islamic world, were influenced by Jewish, Persian, and Greek form of governing
dynasty helping with end of Arab dominance and helped Muslim unity, Muslim civ. thrived
Harun AL Rashid
caliph in which had achieved Baghdad's peak, was viewed as a symbol of wealth and power
groups of Turks who created an empire throughout the fertile crescent, reports of Seljuks had interfered with Christian pilgrims helped spark the crusade
a Mongol leader who led his armies into the Middle East and overran Persia and Mesopotamia
successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims
slender tower of a mosque, from which Muslims are called to prayer
mosque official who climbs to the top of a minaret to call the faithful to prayer
How did Muhammad become the prophet of Islam?
When he "heard the voice of Gabriel" to recite, and so he went on and did that (making him a prophet) through the middle east preaching and telling about the religion, converting people into Muslims and after the hijra, he was welcomed not only as a prophet but as a lawmaker and a ruler
What are the Five Pillars of Islam?
i. Declaration of faith
ii. Daily prayer (5 times a day)
iii. Charity to the poor
iv. Fasting from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan
v. Hajj/ pilgrimage to Mecca (if able)
How do the Five Pillars help unite Muslims?
The pillars helped unite Muslims to create a form of order to follow, and religious duties would keep all the Muslims occupied always with something to do.
How do the Quran and Sharia guide the lives of the Muslims?
The Quran and the Sharia guide the lives of Muslims because they both had a guide to life, the teachings in these two documents were not only of God, but everyday life principles which would help direct recently converted people
What areas did Arab armies conquer?
Parts of France and Spain, North Africa, Byzantine empire, and all of the remaining Persian empire
Give three reasons for the rapid success of the Arab conquests.
i. Weakening of Persian and Byzantine empires
ii. Bold and efficient methods of fighting
iii. Common faith Muhammad had given his people
What issues divided Sunni Muslims and Shiite Muslims?
Sunni's believed caliphs could be rulers but not have religious authority while the Shiites believed descendants of the prophet were divinely inspired, and a conflict between the Caliph created a schism with constant clashes
Why did the empire of the Abbassid caliphs decline and eventually break up?
Because different dynasties started adopting control; the Seljuk Turks came into Baghdad controlling it setting the Abbasid rule aside, the Crusaders captured Jerusalem which was later taken over by the Muslim leader Saladin, and the Mongols burned and looted Baghdad, killing the Abbasid caliph
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