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chemical bonds

attractive force that hold atoms or ions together

ionic bonding

force attracts electrons from one atom to another which transforms a neutral atom into an ion

covalent bonding

bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons

non-polar covalent bonding

covalent bond which bonding electrons are equally attract to both bonded atoms


describes molecule which positive and negative charges are separated

polar covalent bonding

covalent bond which a pair of electrons shared by two atoms is held more closely by one atom


smallest unit of substance that keeps physical chemical properties of that substance, consist of one atom or two or more atoms bonded together

molecular compound

chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules

chemical formula

combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance

molecular formula

chemical formula that shows number and kinds of atoms in a molecule, but not the arrangement of the atoms

bond energy

energy required to break the bonds in 1 mol of a chemical compound

electron dot notation

electron configuration notation which only valence electrons of atom of particular element are shown, indicated by dots placed around elements symbol

Lewis structure

structural formula which electrons are represented by dots; dot pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represents pairs in covalent bonds

structural formula

formula that indicates location of atoms, groups, or ions relative to one another in molecule that indicates number location of chemical bonds

single bond

covalent bond in which two atoms share one pair of electrons

multiple bond

bond which atom share more than one pair of electrons, double or triple


bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure

ionic compound

compound composed of ions bonded together by electrostatic attraction

formula unit

collection of atoms corresponding to ionic compound formula such that molar mass of compound is same as the mass of 1 mol of formula unit

lattice energy

energy associated with construction a crystal lattice relative to energy of all constituent atoms separated by infinite distance

polyatomic ion

ion made of two or more atoms

metallic bonding

bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metallic ions and the electrons around them


ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into a sheet


ability of a substance to to be hammered thin or drawn out into a wire

VESPR theory

theory predicts some molecular shapes based on idea that pairs of valence electrons surrounding an atom repel each other


missing of two or more atomic orbitals of same atom to produce new orbitals; hybridization represents the mixing of higher and lower energy orbitals to form orbitals of intermediate energy

hybrid orbitals

orbitals have properties to explain geometry of bonds between atoms


molecule or part of molecule that contains both positively and negatively charged regions

hydrogen bonding

intermolecular force occurring when hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom of one molecule is attracted to two unshared electrons of another molecule

London dispersion forces

intermolecular attraction resulting form the uneven distribution of electrons and the creation of temporary dipoles

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