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Chapter 6

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chemical bonds
attractive force that hold atoms or ions together
ionic bonding
force attracts electrons from one atom to another which transforms a neutral atom into an ion
covalent bonding
bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
non-polar covalent bonding
covalent bond which bonding electrons are equally attract to both bonded atoms
polar
describes molecule which positive and negative charges are separated
polar covalent bonding
covalent bond which a pair of electrons shared by two atoms is held more closely by one atom
molecule
smallest unit of substance that keeps physical chemical properties of that substance, consist of one atom or two or more atoms bonded together
molecular compound
chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules
chemical formula
combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance
molecular formula
chemical formula that shows number and kinds of atoms in a molecule, but not the arrangement of the atoms
bond energy
energy required to break the bonds in 1 mol of a chemical compound
electron dot notation
electron configuration notation which only valence electrons of atom of particular element are shown, indicated by dots placed around elements symbol
Lewis structure
structural formula which electrons are represented by dots; dot pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represents pairs in covalent bonds
structural formula
formula that indicates location of atoms, groups, or ions relative to one another in molecule that indicates number location of chemical bonds
single bond
covalent bond in which two atoms share one pair of electrons
multiple bond
bond which atom share more than one pair of electrons, double or triple
resonance
bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure
ionic compound
compound composed of ions bonded together by electrostatic attraction
formula unit
collection of atoms corresponding to ionic compound formula such that molar mass of compound is same as the mass of 1 mol of formula unit
lattice energy
energy associated with construction a crystal lattice relative to energy of all constituent atoms separated by infinite distance
polyatomic ion
ion made of two or more atoms
metallic bonding
bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metallic ions and the electrons around them
malleability
ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into a sheet
ductility
ability of a substance to to be hammered thin or drawn out into a wire
VESPR theory
theory predicts some molecular shapes based on idea that pairs of valence electrons surrounding an atom repel each other
hybridization
missing of two or more atomic orbitals of same atom to produce new orbitals; hybridization represents the mixing of higher and lower energy orbitals to form orbitals of intermediate energy
hybrid orbitals
orbitals have properties to explain geometry of bonds between atoms
dipole
molecule or part of molecule that contains both positively and negatively charged regions
hydrogen bonding
intermolecular force occurring when hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom of one molecule is attracted to two unshared electrons of another molecule
London dispersion forces
intermolecular attraction resulting form the uneven distribution of electrons and the creation of temporary dipoles