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Theology Final Study Guide-Mr. Paoletti
Terms in this set (98)
What mystery of God is referenced in Gen. 1:26?
The mystery of the most Holy Trinity. The Father, Son and Holy Spirit. It involves knowledge and love, which God provides for us.
What does it mean to be made in the image of God?
We have free will, the power to chose between right and wrong. We also have knowledge, to have the ability t know God is alive. That allows us to have communion with God and other people around us.
What is man's relationship to the rest of creation?
God gave everything in the world to man. He gave it to us too look after and use for our benefit. We need to use these things appropriately.
What is 'natural law'?
The reasoned participation of human in God's eternal law that reveals what God intends us to do and avoid according to his wise and loving plan.
What are the characteristics of natural law?
Universal and applies to every single person alive. It also is immutable which means it cannot change. It is also permanent throughout history and cannot be destroyed.
What is the one thing that stands behind every human action? In other words, what motivates every human action?
Happiness. We all want to be happy.
What makes us happy? That is to ask, what completes us as human persons?
Our ultimate happiness is in God. Also, in eternal life. Perfect happiness is nothing else but seeing and knowing God.
Are we capable of attaining happiness on our own power?
No it is a gift that comes from God. We cannot make ourselves happy, only God can. He is our ultimate happiness.
How does the idea that God is our happiness affect our moral lives?
It leads us down the right path. We know what can make us happy. We can make the choices to do right from wrong. we should seek the love of God above all else. Everything we do is for us to be happy.
What is human freedom?
Freedom is the power rooted in reason and will. It is directed towards God. It is also the ability to choose. True freedom is shaping our lives and moving towards the good. It allows us to be directed to God and for him to be our ultimate happiness.
Why does God give us freedom?
So we can love. Freedom is necessary in order to love.
What are some hindrances to human freedom?
Some hinderances are being full of ourselves and deviating from the moral law. Also, if you're afraid of the truth or if you don't know right from wrong or if you are attached to earthy things.
How do we relate to our actions? Are our actions separate from who we are?
What we do with our actions is a reflection of our souls. Also, our souls are formed with how we use our bodies. Our actions speak true to who we really are.
What is the moral object of an action?
A moral object is moving towards a goal or something good. It is the content of an acting that suggests whether the action if directed toward the true good. It answers the question "what"--what is being pursued?
What does it mean to say that there are some acts which are intrinsically evil?
It means that the object is always wrong and cannot be justified. An example if sex outside of marriage. That sin is always evil and never right.
What do we mean when we speak about the 'intention' of a human act? What significance does it hold?
Your intention is significant because it can determine the rightness and wrongness of an action. A bad intention always makes for a bad action. Also a good intention does not always call for a good action.
What impact do the circumstances have upon a human act?
It can make offense more evil and good deeds more noble. Circumstances impact when you act, how you act, it can make heroic actions.
What is consequentialism?
Performing actions solely based off of their result.
What is conscience?
Conscience is a law on our hearts that is inscribed by God. It is at the core of our hearts and calls us to love. It is also the voice of God and it allows us to recognize the prescriptions of the natural law.
What does one's conscience do?
It judges actions and enjoins the person at the appropriate moment to do good and avoid evil. It also bears witness to the truth. Conscience cultivates virtues and vices.
How do we form our conscience?
1. Abide by reason, according to nature. It is formed by what is good and bad. 2. Throughout our life, by experience and education. 3. Prayer before Jesus.
Is a person with a poorly formed conscience still culpable?
Yes, they could have a clear conscience and not know any better. We our culpable if we do not form our conscience. A person must work to correct the errors of moral conscience.
What are passions?
Passions and emotions are part of the human appetite that inclines us to act or not to act. Passions refer to the affections or the feelings.
What purpose do emotions or passions serve in morality?
The human person is ordered to beatitude. Emotions allow us to become fully human. Passions form a passageway and ensure the connections between the life of the senses and the life of the mind.
What is the most fundamental passion of the human person?
The most fundamental passion is love. God loves and wants us to love back. It causes the attraction of the good. Love causes a desire for the absent good and the hope of obtaining it.
Are the passions of the human person morally culpable?
Emotions are morally neutral. So no, we are humans and it happens naturally. It is not sinful unless we choose to act upon it.
What is the ultimate goal of the passions?
To love other people better so we can be happier. We should use our emotions and passions for the good. Also, to act in charity. We should not only be moved by our will, but by our hearts. God wants our hearts involved.
What is sin?
Sin is an offense against reason, truth, and right conscience. It is a failure in genuine love for God and neighbor. It is also an offense against God and a desire contrary to the eternal law.
When did sin most manifest itself?
In the passions, when the humans on Earth killed God himself. That time is when the most sin happened. Evil comes out in the world, but Jesus kills it.
Why do people deny the reality of sin?
Because of the shame or the fear of consequences. People do not like to think that they are capable of sining. Also, people don't want to change their way of life and are afraid of the consequences it might bring.
What is the danger to not acknowledging sin?
1. We will not encounter God's mercy or Jesus Christ.
2. Conversion: we will allow the devil to convince ourselves that sinning is okay.
What exactly was the first sin committed by Adam and Eve?
The sin that man preferred himself to God. He wanted to be just like God. Also, when they thought that they could know and determine good and evil.
What are the three general consequences of sin?
1. Alienation from God: deprived "of the glory of God". Exclusion from Christ's kingdom.
2. Alienates us from ourselves: it corrupts our judgement of good and evil
3. Alienates us from others: it separates us from the Catholic Church
What are three principles of sin that Jesus established?
1. We must not lead others into sin-to do so would possibly be greater than the sin itself.
2. Not to act can be a sin
3. We can sin in our own hearts
What is original sin?
It begins with Adam and Eve. Original sin is a transmitted propagation to all mankind. We are captive by the devil and deprived of the holiness from which we are created. It is a sin that is 'contracted' and not 'committed'- a state and not an act.
What is personal sin?
It is a failure to love God above everything and our neighbor as ourselves. Personal sin is also a personal act and we cooperate in them by participating voluntarily in them, by ordering and praising them, not disclosing them, and by protecting evil doers.
What is mortal sin?
Moral sin destroys charity in the heart of man by grave violation of God's law. It is also incompatible with the charity.
What are the three conditions necessary in order for a sin to be 'mortal'?
1. Grave Matter- Fraud, fornication, murder
2. Full knowledge- We must know that what we are doing is wrong. We cannot pretend to be ignorant.
3. Complete Consent- Must be personal and deliberate.
What is the one sin that, according to Jesus, cannot be forgiven?
Blasphemy against the spirit and not believing that the Holy Spirit has the power to forgive you is one sin that Jesus said cannot be forgiven. To refuse to accept Gods mercy. God will forgive any sin as long as that person is not in despair.
What is venial sin?
Venial sin is a mortal disorder that is repairable by charity. It allows charity to subsist in us, even though it offends and wounds it. Our love for God is weakened, not destroyed.
What do we mean when we refer to 'social sins'?
Social sin is when we cooperate in other people's sins and when we fail to serve the poor. It is also when we participate in sin or when we order a sin. Social sin can also be when we fail to stop someone from sinning.
What is a virtue?
A virtue is a habitual and firm disposition to do the good. We choose to do the good and the goal of a virtuous life is to become like God.
What distinguishes this category of cardinal virtues?
Cardinal virtues are the virtues we have to work at everyday. There are four: prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance. They are the basis of society. All other virtues are grouped around these four cardinal virtues.
What is prudence?
Prudence is choosing the most practical thing and being able to balance you life. It is also choosing what is better for you at the time and how to do it. Examples are going to bed early on a school night and filling up your gas tank before a long journey.
What is justice?
Justice is the moral virtue that consists in the constant and firm will to give their due to God and their neighbor. Both forms is justice towards God and justice towards your neighbor. An example is practicing religion, worshiping God, and sharing your wealth with others.
What is fortitude?
Fortitude is the moral virtue that ensures firmness in difficulties and constancy in the pursuit of the good. This virtue guides us between fear and foolishness.
What is temperance?
Temperance is the moral virtue that moderates the attraction of pleasures and provides balance in the use of created goods. Examples are not working to hard and taking a vacation.
What do the cardinal virtue allow us to do?
The cardinal virtue's allow us to love God with all one's heart.
What is law?
Law is a rule of conduct enacted by competent authority for the sake of the common good. We must have rule, competent authority, and common good in order to have law.
What value is there in the law of the Old Testament today?
The Law of Moses expresses many truths naturally accessible to reason. It reflects the natural law. It also tells us how to live our lives and it is the foundation for the vocation of man. Third, light is offered to the conscience and it guides us to be better people.
Why is the Old law considered 'imperfect'?
It does not give us the strength, the grace of the Holy Spirit. God only gave it to us in order to prepare and dispose of the chosen people. It is a preparation of the Gospel and it prepares us to meet Jesus Christ.
How is the New Law more perfect than the Old?
1. The law is given by the Holy Spirit who gives us charity. 2. Gears us towards heaven and our eternal destiny. 3. The New Law fulfills the old and proceeds to reform the heart. The New Law is interior and the Old Law is exterior.
What does it mean to be 'justified'?
Justified means to remission of sin, sanctification and renewal of the interior man, and the acceptance of God's righteousness through Faith in Jesus Christ.
What is grace?
It is a free and undeserved gift from God that gives us to respond to his call to become children of God. We don't earn it ourselves. Grace is a participation in the life of God.
What distinguishes 'sanctifying grace'?
Sanctifying grace is received at Baptism and it a habitual gift. It is a stable and supernatural disposition that perfects the soul itself to enable it to live with God and to act by his love.
What does it mean to 'merit'?
Merit is doing good works and earning something. It is recompense owed by a community or a society for the action of one of its members. It can be beneficial or harmful and could result in a reward or punishment.
What distinguishes the theological virtues?
The three theological virtues are faith, hope, and charity. They are the graces that are given to us from God. They give us a relationship with the God.
What is faith?
Faith is the first step to heaven. It is a personal adherence of man to God. It is also a free assent to the whole truth that God has revealed.
What does faith demand of the Christian?
Faith demands us to profess it, bear witness to it, and spread it.
What are the two greatest examples of faith in human history?
1) Abraham when he was going to sacrifice his son, Issac.2) Also, when the Virgin Mary accepted God's plan for her to have Jesus.
What is hope?
Hope is when we desire the kingdom of heaven and eternal life as our happiness. God gives us the grace to persevere in this life while on earth.
What is the source of our hope?
Jesus Christ is the source of our hope because he suffered and died for us.
What is charity?
Charity is when you love God above all things for his own sake and we love our neighbor as ourselves for the love of God.
What are the three kinds of love?
1)Philia- brotherly love 2)Eros- sexual love 3)agape- sacrificial, total giving of oneself like God.
What makes charity the queen virtue?
It binds everything together in perfect harmony. We need charity in order to practice any other virtue. It is the goal of our christian life.
Why is charity central to Christianity?
Our entire relationship is based off of love with God. Love is our goal and is our fulfillment of our works.
How do we measure our love for God?
We know how much we love God based on how much we love our neighbor.
What is demanded of us in the first commandment?
1) true faith- which nourishes and protects our faith with prudence and rejects everything that is opposed to it. 2) true hope- we must hope God will give us the capacity to love him in return and to act in conformity with the commandments of charity. 3) true love- to love God above everything and all creatures for him and because of Him
What actions do we perform in living out the first commandment?
1) Adoration- to adore God is to acknowledge him as God
2). prayer- lifting up the mind toward God
3). Sacrifice- as a sign of adoration and gratitude, supplication and communion
What are common offenses against the first commandment?
1) superstition- deviation of religious feeling and of the practices this feeling imposes.
2) irreligion- tempting God and treating the sacraments unworthly
3) Idolatry- false pagan worship and temptation to faith
Why should we revere God's name?
For respect. It is an expression of the respect owed to the mystery of God himself and to the whole sacred reality it evolves.
What is forbidden by the second commandment?
1) abusing God's Holy name
2) making false promises in his name
What is the two-fold origin of the Sabbath?
1) when God created the world, God rested on the 7th day
2) the Israelite's were delivered from Egypt on a Sunday
How does the Sabbath make us like God?
If God rested on Sunday, we should rest too. God wants us to rest.
What is the symbolism found in the Sabbath being moved from Saturday to Sunday?
Jesus Christ builds off the Old. Jesus rose and gave us new life on Sunday.
What are some reasons that a person would be excused from Sunday Mass?
Illness, traveling, not having a way of getting to mass, and not having a priest
What are some precepts to observing the 'day of rest'?
We should refrain from engaging in work or activities that hinder the worship of God. We should do good works for the sick and the elderly. We should also devote time to family and relatives.
What role does the 4th Commandment play within the whole Decalogue?
It opens the second table of the decalogue and it shows us the order and charity. The 4th commandment stands as the "transition" commandment because the most natural way to obey God is to obey our parents.
What does it mean to call the family a 'domestic church'?
The family's union is a symbol of the union we find in the church. This union is intended to strengthen each person to spread the love wherever they go.
What duty do children have that comes before all else?
They must be convinced that the first vocation of a christian is to follow Jesus. One's unique vocation comes from God which asserts itself more clearly and forcefully.
Is it ever justifiable to take another person's life?
Yes, only in a matter of self-defense or in a matter of responsibility such as a husband defending his family.
What is the Church's teaching regarding the death penalty?
The real goal of punishment is correcting the guilty and allowing them to change and redeem themselves. The Church says the death penalty is only okay if its the only possible way of defending human lives.
What are some other major offenses against the 5th Commandment?
1. Abortion, for life starts at the moment of conception. 2. Euthanasia, we should take care of the weak. 3. Creating life for scientific purposes.
When is it morally legitimate to allow a person to die?
The ordinary care owed to a sick person cannot be legitimately interrupted, such as food and water. However, we do not have to perform extraordinary treatment.
What conditions must be met for a war to be considered acceptable or just?
1. We must be threatened. 2. When we know we can win.
3. The effect of the war must be greater than the pain of the war. 4.War must be the only option.
What is chastity?
The successful integration of sexuality within the person and thus the inner unity of man in his bodily and spiritual being.
What are the major offenses against the virtue of chastity?
Rape, fornication, pornography, prostitution & masturbation
Why does the Catholic Church consider contraception to be a sin?
A person cannot get in the way of God's plan. Doing so is going against God's will for what he made the sexual act for. We have to be faithful to what is happening through the gift he has given us.
What is forbidden by the 7th commandment?
Theft, taking another property against against the reasonable will of the owner.
Why are we bound to tell the truth?
1. Man tends by nature towards the truth. He is obligated to honor and bear witness to it. 2. Men can not live with one another if they were not truthful to one another.
What is forbidden by the 8th Commandment?
1. False witness and perjury 2. Respect for the reputation of a person 3. Rash judgement 4. Calumny 5. Boasting/bragging
Does the 8th Commandment demand us to always speak the truth unconditionally?
No. The right to the communication of the truth is not unconditional. We can hold out on the truth through charity for the common good, such as for the good and safety for others or for respect of privacy.
What is forbidden by the 9th Commandment?
Lust of flesh, eyes, and pride of life. 2. Carnal concupiscence.
Why is modesty so important?
Purity requires modesty. It keeps silence or reserve where there is evident risk of unhealthy curiosity. Modesty protects the intimate center of a person.
What is forbidden by the 10th Commandment?
It is forbidden to envy the good fortune of another, and to desire seriously to have what belongs to another.
Does the 10th Commandment forbid any and every desire for material goods?
No it is not a violation of this Commandment to desire to obtain things that belongs to ones things.
Why is envy and jealousy of material goods such a serious sin?
Jesus wants us to prefer him over everyone and everything. Jesus only wants us to become like him and not like anybody else because he is all perfect.
What allows us to move past our sinful desire for worldly goods?
The desire for true happiness. God is our true happiness and when we recognize this, everything else will fall into place.
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