Family Tarsiidae often grouped with what?
both strepsirhini and Haplorhini (the family is intermediate in some ways)
What are the characteristics of the family Tarsiidae?
unique-small with very large forward directing eyes, head large, limbs and tail very long, limbs have elongate bones with some fusion in distal elements
What are the digits like in the family Tarsiidae?
have distal pads with nails with exception of 2nd and 3rd pedal
What are the teeth in the family Tarsiidae?
nonspecialized and upper incisors have medial pair enlarged
What are the characteristics of the family tarsiidae with it being nocturnal?
eyes are very large, retina lacks cones, lacks tapetum lucidum,retains fovea centralis
What is the locomotion of the family Tarsiidae?
walking, running (often bipedal on hindlegs), leaping
Is the family Tarsidaee social?
to a limited extent, family groups and individuals with partially overalpping ranges
How many families are under the suborder Haplorhini and what is the suborder made up of?
5 families made up of higher primates
THe Suborder Haplorhini as a group as a whole has what characteristics?
larger, more diverse, broadly distributed (geographically), hemochorial placenta, favea centralis
What are the two major subgroups of the suborder Haplorhini?
Platyrrhini (new world) and Catarrhini (old world)
How many genera and species in the family Cebidae?
11 genera and 58 species (under the subgroup platyrrhini)
What are the characteristics of the family Cebidae?
most small but the largest is the howler monkey (The Monkey Alouatta- 9kg)
What are the limbs like in the family Cebidae?
long, digits with curved nails, pollex reduced or absent w/ no major role in grabbing, hallux present and opposable, long tail often prehensile
What is the skull like in the family Cebidae?
globular, high brain case, short rostrum, orbits anteriorly directed, pltyrrhine nostrils that face side with broad separation
What dentition in the family Cebidae?
2/2 1/1 3/3 3/3 --->most generalized with slight modifications of the molars
Is the family Cebidae social?
highly. ex1) howlers- troops up to 40, vocal, males have modified hyoid = amplification ex2) squirrel monkey- troops up to 100, highly arboreal, vocal
What characteristics of Callithricidae?
squirrel like, clawed digits, no grasping or brachyation, non prehensile long tails, ornamentation of tufts and mane colors
What habits of Callithricidae?
form superfamily (merge ind grp into lg grp)- vocal with high pitched calls, omnivorous, male has extensive care of young
WHat kind of skull for Cercopithecidae?
lg and robust with well developed ridges (sagital and occipital crests----if found you would think that it was carnivore but not), rostrum is fairly long/elongated compared to the rest of the Catarrhines
What is the dentition in Cercopithecidae?
2/2 1/1 2/2 3/3 ----> canines usually large- Molars quadritubercular & bilophondont
The tail in the family Cercopithceidae is what?
variable (is chial callosities present in many in reproductive behavior)
What are the features of Ceropithecines?
feed on nut/seed, cheek pouches, broad incisors, shorter jaw for more powerful bite, limbs equal length, many terrestrial
What are the characteristics of the Colobines?
leaf eaters, complex stomach, narrow incisors, deeper jaws & cheek teeth with high cusps, long hind legs and tail, thumbs short and absent
What is the purpose of cheek teeth with high cusps?
to create a chopping action when teeth occlude when eating leafy material
Are the Colobines social?
yes- types vary- most have sexual morphism (males usually larger), long lived with social hiearchy of 20-25years
What is the subfamily Hylobatinae?
Gibbons (most speacilized arboreals)--- extensive use of brachyation (hanging or swinging from branch to branch using arms)
What are the characterisitics of Hylobatinae?
forelimbs are long, digits are long, slender and curved "hook", skull has large orbits protruding at rims
What are the characteristics of the subfamily Ponginae?
larger, more robust, not as arboreal, opposable hallux & pollex
What is the dentition of subfamily Ponginae like?
like man- 2/2 1/1 2/2 3/3 - incisors usually broad (dif from human), canines often large (slightly dif in human), cheek teeth are quadrangular (4 cusps)
What are the body characteristics of Ponginae?
forelimbs are longer than hind, tails absent, develop upright stance, largely terrestrial
What type of food does the subfamily Ponginae eat?
they are vegetarians with some carnivory in the chimps, some canabalism (rare)
What characteristics of Hominidae?
inflated brain case, enlarged cerebral cortex, greatly reduced rostrum, ventral opening of foramen magnum, reduction in massiveness of teeth & skull & jaw bones, shift in bipedal scapula more on back, loss of opposable thumb, lengthening of metatarsals, rigid fusion of pelvis to vert column