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Terms in this set (61)

Cheese (lactic acid fermentation) :
Milk → pasteurized → lactic acid "starter" culture added → rennet → milk coagulates → cut and "cooked", curd and whey separated → salted and pressed → cheese → aged or ripened

Wine
Gather grapes → stemming and crushing (must) → SO2 Destroy Wild Yeast → Add yeast → primary fermentation → press wine out of skins → secondary fermentation → racking - to remove sediment (Lees) → Aging

Beer
Malting
germinate barley
amylase
2. Mashing
25% Malt + 75% Grain
enzymes hydrolyze starch --- sugars
3. Lautering and Sparging
filter - separate juice out
wort = yellow liquid
hops = flower seeds (humulus lupulus)
give bitterness
preservative effect
4. Cool then "Pitch"
innoculate - saccaromyces cerevisae
ferment
5. Green Beer (9-10 days)
clarify, mellow, carbonate, age (1-3 months)

Pickles
Cucumbers in water → ferment → add salt (allow L.A. bacteria to grow) → CHO - Lactic Acid(0.8 - 1.5%) → "salt stock" (storage of cucumbers) → to make pickles: "salt stock" - leaching → Alum (firmness) + turmeric (improve color)
sweet pickles - (vinegar, sugar, spices, relish)
sour pickles - (vinegar, 2.5% acidity)
dill pickles - (vinegar, dill herb, spice)

Sauerkraut
salt 2.25%
lactic acid 1.5 - 2.0%
sequential organisms
leuconostoc mesenteroides
lactobacillus cucumeris
lactobacillus pentoaceticus
Olives
bitter element (oleuropein)
removed with 2% NaOH (LYE)
washed
brine (6-7% salt) fermentation
1.5% acid
Meat Curing or Pickling
method varies
composition
sodium chloride (salt) - 24%
sodium nitrite - less than 0.1%
sodium nitrate (banned)
sugar - 2.5%
smoking
added flavor
preservation by heat and surface drying