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CIE A Level Psychology Education

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An example of a school that uses the humanistic approach
Summerhill School
The humanistic approach rejects determinism. It gives us _______ _________
Free will
What does the humanistic approach assume humans strive towards?
Self actualization
Type of technique used by the humanistic approach, where students work together
Cooperative learning
One application of humanistic approach: where large rooms contain multiple activities
Open classroom
Looking at all the possible causes for a behaviour, rather than just one
Holistic approach
The humanistic approach places most importance on a person's own experience. This is called a p________________ approach
Phenomenological
The term used to describe each student having their own unique way of learning
Learning styles
Because the humanistic approach does not test its theories experimentally, it is ___________
Unscientific
Catering for each individual's learning styles in the classroom would be very ____ ________ for the teacher
Time consuming
Founder of the humanistic approach
Carl Rogers
A co-operative learning technique; similar to 'circle time' in primary schools
Learning circle
Example of cooperative learning technique with a home group and an expert group
Jigsaw
The name for someone who does not put in any effort during group work
'free-rider'
Jigsaw technique where the experts report back to the whole class
Reverse Jigsaw
Rogers' theory of education, which focused on the process of learning, rather than the actual material learned
Process education
Whole school version of the open classroom
One room schoolhouse
The humanistic approach believes that students be given the choice over their learning environment (True or False)
True
What 'c________' should a humanistic approach school focus on?
Creativity
What 'p_____ s_______' should a humanistic approach school focus 'on'
Problem solving
Is a humanistic classroom student-centred or teacher-centred?
Student-centred
What kind of data does humanistic approach collects?
Qualitative
Is humanistic approach is said to be scientific or unscientific?
Unscientific
What is the weakness of open classrooms?
Difficult to distinguish chaos and order
Children are given ___________ over their own progress?
Choice/ freedom.
Which are humanistic ideas: Classical conditioning, learning style, zone of proximal development, process education?
Learning style and process education.
Does the humanistic approach use token economies?
No.
Does the humanistic approach use reinforcement (Operant Conditioning)?
No.
A school promotes: free will, wide range of open session classes, no particular schedule given. Is it a humanistic school?
Yes
Which school has better academic performance (exam grades), Traditional School or Humanistic School?
Traditional school
Is the humanistic approach holistic or reductionist?
Holistic.
Does the humanistic approach use Assimilation, Accomodation, Equilibrium and Disequilibrium in education?
No.
What does MKO stand for?
More Knowledgeable Other
Who came up with the idea of 'guided' discovery?
Vygotsky
What is the result of experiencing new things that contrast with current schemas?
Disequilibrium
What is the term for changing existing schemas or making whole new schemas?
Accommodation
Who came up with the idea of advance organiser?
Ausubel
In Piaget's terms, what is the state of affairs that we are always trying to achieve?
Equilibrium
What does ADL stand for?
Actual Development Level
What is the term for receiving info in its finished form?
Reception learning
One problem of discovery learning is that it is a very t_____ c________ method
Time-consuming
The difference between what a learner can achieve on their own and what they can achieve with help.
Zone of Proximal Development
Who came up with the idea of discovery learning?
Bruner
What is the term for providing help at first which is gradually withdrawn?
Scaffolding
A learning technique that takes place when students are not presented with a subject form in its final form.
Discovery learning
Who came up with the idea of the child as a 'lone scientist'?
Piaget
What is it called when a person learns about the basic concepts of a specific topic and develops in depth and complex knowledge about it in time?
Spiral curriculum
What is the term for adding new info to pre-existing schemas?
Assimilation
Vygotsky disagreed that children were 'lone scientists'. Instead he called them _______ __________
Little Apprentice
A set of interrelated ideas about the world.
Schema
What are the two types of subsumption?
Correlative and derivative
The name for educational theories which state that the child is responsible for creating their own view of the world.
Constructivism
What are the two types of programmed learning?
Linear & branching program
What is social learning theory?
Learning through observing other people's behaviour
What is CR?
Conditioned response
What are the three types of behaviourist learning?
CC, OC, SLT
What is the strength of behaviourism?
Scientific
What is the weakness of behaviourism?
Ignores thought process (CA)
In Little Albert experiment, UCS (loud noise) -> UCR (?????)
fear
In Little Albert experiment, after conditioning... (rat) -> UCR (fear)
CS
What are the two types of conditioning in behaviourist approach?
Classical and Operant
What is classical conditioning?
Learning by association
What is operant conditioning?
Learning from consequences.
What is systematic desensitisation?
Systematic exposure to a phobia object.
What is programmed learning?
'Frames', short answers
What is a positive reinforcement?
E.g. a reward
What is negative reinforcement?
Remove an unpleasant stimulus
What is the effect of punishment on behaviour?
Reduces the frequency
Name two types of disruptive behaviour
Conduct (or examples), immaturity
Name two types of bullying
Verbal, physical or cyber
Name one SEN condition which could lead to disruptive behaviour
ADHD (or possibly autism)
Name two possible causes of disruptive behaviour
Poor parenting, poor teaching
Behaviourists would argue that giving a child attention in class (even negative attention) could be a _________ __________
Positive reinforcement
Which one of Kounin's five characteristics of effective classroom management involves surprise questions
Group alerting
Which one of Kounin's five characteristics means whether they are aware of everything going on in the lesson
Withitness'
Kounin thought that disruptive behaviour could be avoided if 'seatwork' in class was ______________
Stimulating
Give one effect of disruptive behaviour
E.g. social isolation etc
A biological theory of attention seeking links the behaviour to which personality characteristic?
Impulsivity
Give one study which has linked attention seeking to problems later in life
Jang et al (alcohol), Comings (gambling)
What name would be given to a strategy to avoid disruptive behaviour happening in the first place?
Preventive strategy
What name would be given to a strategy to change disruptive behaviours after they have occurred?
Corrective strategies
Name the psychologist who investigated whole school preventive strategies
Cotton (1990)
One important preventive strategy is that the ________ of the school are clear and understood by teachers and students
Rules
Name one corrective strategy for disruptive behaviour that is based on behaviourist ideas
Behaviour modification
Name one corrective strategy for disruptive behaviour that is based on cognitive-behavioural ideal
Self-instructional training
Fontana (1995) defined this as "behaviour that proves unacceptable to the teacher"
Disruptive behaviour
SIT involves a number of stages of imitation, one of which involves ___________ performance without lip movements
sub-vocal
Meichenbaum (1971) found that SIT helped reduce impulsivity in a task involving ______________
line drawing
Prestland's Behaviour modification technique is based upon which theory?
Operant conditioning
How many steps are there in Prestland's behaviour modification strategy?
6
"The ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use our knowledge to adapt to new situations" is one definition of ________________
Intelligence
Tests which attempt to make quantitative measurements of the mind (such as IQ tests) are called ____________ tests
Psychometric
Which test of intelligence used the formula MA/CAx100 to calculate children's IQ and used mainly linguistic questions?
Stanford-Binet
Wechsler introduced the idea of a ______________ IQ, one calculated by looking at the taker's position in a normal distribution
Deviation
What were the names of Wechsler's two versions of his IQ test?
WAIS and WISC
Wechsler divided his 'full scale IQ' into Verbal and Performance IQ. These divided into 4 'indexes'. What were the two indexes for performance IQ?
Processing speed, perceptual organisation
Wechsler divided his 'full scale IQ' into Verbal and Performance IQ. These divided into 4 'indexes'. What were the two indexes for verbal IQ?
Verbal comprehension, Working memory
The British Ability Scales (BAS) test consists of over 20 subtests and is designed to measure a ________ range of abilities than the WISC/WAIS
Wider
One major problem with intelligence tests is that they are very ____________ as they are standardised across the world
Ethnocentric
Intelligence tests are objective and reliable measurement tools. They also have ________ ___________ for future success
Predictive validity
Give one example of a case where IQ tests may have been used incorrectly.
Atkins vs State of Virginia
Name the psychologist most associated with the Factor-analytic theory of intelligence
Cattell
Which form of mathematical comparison does the factor-analysis technique use?
Correlations
If many different academic skills seem to be related to each other, this suggests that intelligence may be a _________ factor
Unitary/single
What is the abbreviation given to the idea of a single, general intelligence?
'g'
Which theorist suggested the theory of Multiple Intelligences?
Howard Gardner
What form of evidence was presented in support of the MI theory?
Case studies
Gardner claimed that each intelligence was independent and not related to the others. Has evidence been found to support this claim?
No
Sternberg's triarchic theory suggests that intelligence is a general quality, but that it is made up of which three parts?
Analytic, Creative and Practical subtheories
Sternberg's theory offers a much broader definition of intelligence. IQ tests would only test which of his three subtheories?
Analytic
One criticism of the triarchic theory is that it merely ________ the parts of intelligence, not where they are or how they function
Describes
Which alternative to intelligence was suggested by Daniel Goleman?
Emotional intelligence
What are the remaining parts of Goleman's theory: self-awareness, self-management, social skills, ____________ and _________?
Empathy, motivation
Most emotional intelligence tests rely on self-report data. One problem with this type of data collection is _________
e.g. SDB, poor insight or memory, unstandardised
What name is given to "a popular idea that is not supported by actual research evidence" in psychology
Pop psychology
Name the psychometric test which J. P. Guildford devised to help him measure creativity.
The Alternative Uses Test
Guildford felt that creativity could be seen in ________ thinking, thought processes which suggest many different possible solutions
Divergent
Alternative theories to intelligence could all be seen as positive developments as they have a far more _________ view than IQ
Holisitc
Alternative theories to intelligence could be criticised for trying to redefine intelligence. They might be better classed as _________
Skills/abilities
Three heuristics which could be used to solve problems are Means End Analysis, ________ _________ and _________ ________
Planning strategies, Backwards searching
Both means end analysis and planning strategies involve the formation of breaking down problems into numerous _________
Goals/sub-goals
What is different about the backwards searching method of problem solving compared to the other two?
Starts at the goal and works backwards
Where it is the task itself, rather than any credit or reward that might occur from it, which the person finds most satisfying
Intrinsic motivation
Where it is the outcome of the task (e.g. rewards) which is motivating, rather than the task itself
Extrinsic motivation
The increase in the frequency of a behaviour as a result of a consequence such as a reward or merit
Positive reinforcement
The theory which uses positive and negative reinforcements and punishments to shape behaviour
Operant conditioning
Brophy (1981) found that praise is motivating if it is ________ (i.e. the child should understand exactly what they are being praised for)
specific
Brophy (1981) found that praise is motivating for students with an ___________ locus of control
external
Maslow's humanistic theory of motivation
Hierarchy of needs
The top level of Maslow's humanistic theory of motivation, where we have achieved our full potential
Self-actualisation
One criticism of Maslow's humanistic theory of motivation is that it lacks supporting evidence. Another is that it is _______________
e.g. ethnocentric, biased, subjective etc
Mclelland's Need for Achievement personality theory suggests that there are two possible causes of high N-Ach. What are they?
Hope of success Fear of failure
N-Ach can be measured using the TAT, but this is a _________ test and so might be considered unscientific and open to _______
Projective, bias
If a person has a high need for achievement personality, what sort of tasks will they choose to do?
Medium difficulty
To increase motivation using praise it is important that it is ________ (so that the child really believes it)
Sincere
One advantage of operant conditioning to improve motivation is that it is very easy to ________ in school, and therefore very useful.
Apply
"The belief in one's capabilities to succeed in a given situation" is called _______________
Self-efficacy
One way of increasing self-efficacy is to experience ____________, and to be rewarded for this. Observing other people can also be effective
Success
Believing in yourself means that you will be more likely to make ________ attributions about your successes, increasing motivation
Internal
Cognitive strategies to increase motivation also involve the setting of _______ for the students to attain
Goals/targets
The humanistic approach would criticise the use of goal setting and testing, as treats each individual as though they were _________
The same
Weiner's (1984) theory of attributions suggests that motivation can be internal/________, _________/unstable and ________/uncontrollable
External, stable, controllable
Weiner also identified four factors that students might attribute their performance to. What are they?
Luck, task difficulty, ability, effort
Of Weiner's four factors, the most effective attribution for increasing motivation is _________
Effort
Praising the effort of a student is a method for increasing motivation that would be used by both _________ and __________ approaches
Cognitive, behaviourist
A student believing that there is nothing that they can do to improve their performance in school would be an example of _________ __________
Learned helplessness
Name of the psychologist who conducted an observational study and an experiment into learned helplessness and gender
Dweck
Which gender is more likely to display learned helplessness in school (perhaps due to wider cultural factors)?
Girls
Difficulty in learning the symbols involved with written language is the definition of what?
Dyslexia
What does the abbreviation ADHD stand for?
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
What are the 3 subtypes of ADHD?
Attention-deficit, hyperactivity-impulsive, combined
Who created the Enrichment Triad Model?
Renzulli
Individual and small group investigations of real problems happens in which part of the ETM?
Type III activities
What happens in type I activities of the ETM?
general explanatory activities
What happens in type II activities of the ETM?
group training activities
Critical thinking skills is an example from which type of ETM?
type II
Experiments and tests are examples from which type of ETM?
type III
According to Renzulli, a school structure should consist of ______________, curriculum modification techniques and enrichment learning and teaching.
the total talent portfolio
The term given to children with a higher capability than their peers.
Gifted
Distinctive linguistic or sound units that in combination create words are called _______
Phonemes
A developmental disorder affecting the individual's social and communicative abilities.
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Catering to the needs of a child with special educational needs within a normal school environment.
Integration
The action of sending children with special educational needs to a special institution.
Segregation
The process wherein a gifted child proceeds through a curriculum at a faster rate than normal students his rate.
Acceleration
Name 4 SEN conditions
Dyslexia; ASD; ADHD; Giftedness.
What is the IQ score for someone to be considered "gifted", according to Lefrancois?
Above 140.
Name two possible causes of autism.
Lack of Theory of Mind; Biological (Genetics).
Name the strategy used to educate children with dyslexia.
Alpha to Omega.
Who came up with the Enrichment Triad Model?
Renzulli.
Name one social effect of autism.
Difficulty in making friends/social isolation
This program is based on the Alpha to Omega principles and is specifically designed for students with reading difficulties
The wordshark program
What are phonetic errors?
difficulty converting phonemes(sounds) to graphemes(written symbols)
What are lexical errors?
Where the word sounds right but looks wrong
What are the two strategies for educating children with special needs?
Inclusion and Segregation
Evidence supporting the genetic explanation of autism
Concordance rates: 96% for MZ twins, 23% DZ.
Acceleration for the gifted means?
Skipping a grade or two/early admission to college
Give one advantage of Inclusion.
Social learning of 'normal' behaviours
What concordance rate was found for siblings with autism by Bolton et al (1994)?
3%
What is the name of the theory that refers to the beliefs we are able to form about other people's thoughts and intention?
Theory of mind
What is meant by the term 'gifted'?
have outstanding abilities/ capable of high performance
Who found 3% concordance rate for siblings with autism?
Bolton et al
Who conducted a twin study and found 96% concordance rate for MZ twins but only 23% for DZ twins?
Rivito et al
Which manual do psychologists use to diagnose someone with autism?
DSM.
What is a disadvantage of "integration"?
Lack of specialist help
Who is involved in diagnosing a child with SEN?
teachers; parents; educational psychologist.
The biological explanation of autism - what are the concordance rates for siblings (Bolton et al 1994), identical and non-identical twins (Rivito et al 1985)?
3%, 96% and 23%
Baron-Cohen (2008) suggests that autism results in 2 distinct differences in cognitive ability; weak ______ and strong __________.
empathy, systemising
What type of children will benefit from a very clear structure and a set of daily routine?
Autistic
Who created the Alpha-to-Omega program for dyslexia?
Selikowitz
The 3 criteria for a diagnosis of autism.
social interaction, social communication and repetitive/stereotyped behaviour
What was the name of Baron-Cohen's (1985) test for theory of mind?
Sally-Anne test
Getting a diagnosis of an SEN condition could be harmful if it leads to the _________ of the child
Labelling
A diagnosis of SEN might be required in order for a child to access __________ help
Specialist
Being able to form beliefs about other people's thoughts and intentions is called
Theory of mind
What is the outermost layer in Curry's Onion Model?
Instructional preference
What is the middle layer in Curry's Onion Model?
Information processing style
What is the innermost layer in Curry's Onion Model?
Personality style
In Grasha's six styles of learning, which style would enjoy working alone at their own speed?
Independent
In Grasha's six styles of learning, which style would be the opposite of avoidant?
Participant
Although measurement of learning styles can be difficult, the quantitative data produced helps us to ______ and ______ theories
Compare and analyse
In Grasha's six styles of learning, which style would enjoy group work and co-operation?
Collaborative
In Grasha's six styles of learning, which style would enjoy simply being told what to do by a teacher?
Dependent
What are Bennett's (1976) two styles of teaching?
Formal and informal
What are Fontana's (1995) two styles of teaching?
High and low-initiative
Which one of Entwistle's ASI orientations would be associated with the stereotypical 'Chinese' student?
Reproducing orientation
Which one of Entwistle's ASI orientations would be associated with the stereotypical 'Western' student?
Meaning orientation
Which one of Entwistle's ASI orientations involves using a range of different strategies, depending on the task in hand?
Achieving orientation
What are Kolb's four learning styles?
Divergers, convergers, assimilators, accommodators
Which of Kolb's learning styles will be interested in the practical applications of ideas?
Converger
Which of Kolb's learning styles will be interested in doing things in the real world, rather than thinking about them?
Accommodators
What is the name of the scale with 'polar' adjectives which Kyriacou and Wilkins (1993) used to measure teaching styles?
Semantic differential scale
What were Kyriacou and Wilkins (1993)'s results?
Teaching became more student-centred over time
If a learning style can't tell us how a person will perform in future situations, then it doesn't have ________ ________
Predictive validity
Taking two different tests and checking that they give similar results would be a test of their ________ _________
Concurrent validity
Taking a test and then re-taking it a short time later to check that you get similar results would be a test of _________ __________
Test-retest reliability
The 4MAT cycle suggests that learners fall into four categories, using the same divisions as which other theory?
Kolb
4MAT, PQRST and SPELT are all examples of what?
Study skills techniques
Complete the four stages of the 4MAT cycle. Motivation, concept development, ________ and __________?
Practice and application
One of the foundations of the 4MAT system is ________ _________, but this idea has little experimental support
Hemispheric dominance/ hemispheric specialisation
The 4MAT system is designed for teachers as a system of _________ planning
Lesson
What are the five stages of PQRST?
Preview, question, read, self-recitation, test
What is the 'testing effect'?
Remembering material better if you've been tested on it
PQRST works because it is much more active than just reading, which is a very __________ method of learning
Passive
What is the term for 'thinking about thinking'?
Metacognition
As SPELT has been mostly used successfully with children with SEN, its results may not be ____________ to other children
Generalisable
One SPELT experiment used a line drawing task. This task may not be ________ _________ as a model of other academic tasks
Ecologically valid
What happens in final stage of the SPELT program?
Student evaluates and modifies own strategies
Whilst it may be true that distinct categories of learning styles do not exist, we should not ignore ________ _________ in students
Individual differences