muscles of the _______ (throat) contract sequentially to perform swallowing movements begun by the tongue.
The main pharyngeal muscles are the ________, ______, and ________ ___________ muscles.
superior, middle & inferior constrictor MM.
During the voluntary phase of swallowing: after mastication, a bolus of food is pressed against the palate by extrinsic tongue MM.
During the pharyngeal phase of swallowing: tactile receptors of the oropharynx initiate this involuntary reflexive phase, which is performed mainly by pharyngeal constrictor MM. The soft palate closes off the nasopharynx and the epiglottis closes the laryngeal opening.
The esophageal phase of swallowing: begins with relaxation of the superior esophageal sphincter and continues with peristalsis of esophageal MM.
suprahyoid muscles are ________ to the hyoid bone and _______ the hyoid bone and larynx during speaking and swallowing.
infrahyoid muscles are ________ to the hyoid bone and _______ the hyoid and larynx during speaking and swallowing.
a u-shaped bone inferior to the mandible in the anterior neck. Not attached to other bones.
list the 4 suprahyoid muscles
1. digastric m (depresses the mandible has 2 bellies - anterior and posterior)
2. geniohyoid m (inferior to genioglossus, inside surface of mandible to hyoid bone)
3. mylohyoid m (acts as a muscular diaphragm for the floor of the oral cavity)
4. stylohyoid m
list the 4 infrahyoid muscles
1. omohyoid m (two bellies - superior and inferior)
2. m (superficial, paired, rectangular)
3. sternothyroid m (inserts on the thyroid cartilage)
3. thyrohyoid m
the ___________________ muscles are the major muscles of the anterolateral neck.
all of the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles, larynx, thyroid gland are within the anterior triangle of the neck.
the scalene muscles and base of brachial plexus are located within the posterior triangle of the neck.
the upper respiratory tract is comprised of the following: (3)
1. nose and nasal cavity
2. paranasal sinuses
Just inside each nostril is a _____ _________. (with guard hairs or _________)
the _____ ______ extends posteriorly to the openings into the nasopharynx called _______.
choanae. (choana is singular)
--choanae are internal nostrils
________, ______ and ________ _____ _______ form the lateral wall on each side of the cavity. (AKA scroll bones)
superior, middle and inferior nasal conchae
the purpose of conchae is to...
increase surface area for improved conditioning and filtration of inhaled air.
the purpose of paranasal sinuses is to...
lighten the skull and increase mucus production (each lined with nasal mucosa).
do not confuse with dural venous sinuses! (which are veins that run through the meninges of the brain)
paranasal sinuses are named for the bones that contain them.
List the four paranasal sinuses.
1. frontal sinuses
2. ethmoidal sinuses
3. sphenoidal sinuses
4. maxillary sinuses - largest
each of the paranasal sinuses has a duct draining mucous from it into the nasal cavity. the ducts can become blocked, leading to nasal pressure
The _______ is the space where nasal and oral cavities communicate with esophagus and larynx. This space has shared digestive and respiratory functions.
auditory tubes AKA ________________ ____ (tube connecting nasopharynx and middle ear cavity)
list the three types of tonsils
palatine (we can see in the mirror)
lingual (paired at the back of the tongue)
tonsils are parts of the _________ system, these contain clusters of ___________ which monitor _____ ____ for ________.
the edges of the tonsils contain ______ where antigens are trapped as part of the immune response.
The opening of the oral cavity into the oropharynx is the ______, defined by two pairs of muscular arches...the ______________ and ________________ arches.
the glossopalatine and pharyngopalatine arches
the ______________ starts inferior to the hyoid bone and is continuous with the larynx and esophagus.
______ form the lateral wall of the oral cavity and are comprised mainly of the buccinator muscle.
internally, the upper and lower lips are attached to the gingivae by a ______ ________.
the anterior 2/3 of the palate is the ____ ______. The posterior 1/3 is the soft and muscular ____ ______.
The _____ is the posterior extension of the soft palate which closes off the nasopharynx during the pharyngeal phase of swallowing.
______________ ________ ______ lie inferior to the body of the mandible
submandibular salivary glands
each gland has many tiny __________ _____ which empty lateral to the submandibular ducts.
list the two types of secretory cells that occur in salivary glands.
1. mucous cells
2. serous cells
the larynx is supported by a framework of __________, _________, and _______.
cartilages, ligaments, and muscles
List the three large structural cartilages of the larynx.
1. thyroid cartilage
2. cricoid cartilage
3. epiglottis (epiglottic cartilage)
see pic "major cartilages of the larynx"
anterior, posterior & midsagittal views
the v-shaped anterior projection of the thyroid cartilage is the _________ __________.
laryngeal prominence ("adam's apple")
The spoon shaped cartilage that projects superiorly into the pharynx is the __________.
epiglottis (epiglottic cartilage)
How does the epiglottis prevent materials from entering the airway?
Swallowing moves the epiglottis so that is closes the opening to the larynx (the glottis). This prevents materials entering the airway.
List the smaller paired cartilages that play an important role in sound production.
1. arytenoid cartilages
2. corniculate cartilages
3. cuneiform cartilages
The _________ cartilages are attached to vocal ligaments and intrinsic laryngeal MM. they are completely mobile and held in place by the 8 intrinsic laryngeal MM.
The intrinsic laryngeal MM are innervated by the _______ nerve.
recurrent laryngeal NN (branches of Vagus N (CN X))
The __________ folds (AKA false vocal folds) are superior to the __________ folds.
How is sound produced?
When air passes through the rima glottids, it causes vibration of the vocal folds which results in sound production.
endocrine glands do not have _____. each cell releases hormones directly into a _________.
The thyroid follicles are comprised of simple cuboidal cells surrounding a small quantity of liquid called _____________.
Thyroid hormone plays several roles in __________ __________ and ___________
regulating metabolism and development
hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are an overproduction or underproduction of the _______ _______.
parafollicular cells secrete __________ which stimulates osteoblast activity (reducing blood Calcium)
the four small glands of the posterior surface of the thyroid gland are ___________ glands.