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muscles of the _______ (throat) contract sequentially to perform swallowing movements begun by the tongue.


the muscles of the pharynx are mainly innervated by the _____ nerve (CN _____)

Vagus N (CN X)

The main pharyngeal muscles are the ________, ______, and ________ ___________ muscles.

superior, middle & inferior constrictor MM.

Swallowing is also known as ___________.


list the 3 phases of swallowing

1. voluntary phase
2.pharyngeal phase
3. esophageal phase

During the voluntary phase of swallowing: after mastication, a bolus of food is pressed against the palate by extrinsic tongue MM.


During the pharyngeal phase of swallowing: tactile receptors of the oropharynx initiate this involuntary reflexive phase, which is performed mainly by pharyngeal constrictor MM. The soft palate closes off the nasopharynx and the epiglottis closes the laryngeal opening.


The esophageal phase of swallowing: begins with relaxation of the superior esophageal sphincter and continues with peristalsis of esophageal MM.


The __________ phase and __________ phase are involuntary.


difficulty swallowing is known as _________


the inability to swallow is known as _______


most anterior neck muscles are __________ or __________ qqqmuscles


suprahyoid muscles are ________ to the hyoid bone and _______ the hyoid bone and larynx during speaking and swallowing.


infrahyoid muscles are ________ to the hyoid bone and _______ the hyoid and larynx during speaking and swallowing.


a u-shaped bone inferior to the mandible in the anterior neck. Not attached to other bones.

hyoid bone

This bone serves as an attachment site for tongue and laryngeal muscles.

hyoid bone

list the 4 suprahyoid muscles

1. digastric m (depresses the mandible has 2 bellies - anterior and posterior)
2. geniohyoid m (inferior to genioglossus, inside surface of mandible to hyoid bone)
3. mylohyoid m (acts as a muscular diaphragm for the floor of the oral cavity)
4. stylohyoid m

list the 4 infrahyoid muscles

1. omohyoid m (two bellies - superior and inferior)
2. m (superficial, paired, rectangular)
3. sternothyroid m (inserts on the thyroid cartilage)
3. thyrohyoid m

the ___________________ muscles are the major muscles of the anterolateral neck.

sternocleidomastoid muscles

bilaterally, the sternocleidomastoid muscles ____ the ____.

flex the neck.

unilaterally, the sternocleidomastoid muscles ...

flex the neck and rotate head to opposite side.

the anterior triangle of the neck is bordered by ...

the SCM, the midline and the mandible.

all of the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles, larynx, thyroid gland are within the anterior triangle of the neck.


the posterior triangle of the neck is bordered by ...

the SCM, the clavicle and the trapezius M.

the scalene muscles and base of brachial plexus are located within the posterior triangle of the neck.


the upper respiratory tract is comprised of the following: (3)

1. nose and nasal cavity
2. paranasal sinuses
3. pharynx

The ____ is the main conducting airway for inhaled air


paired _____ _____ provide support at the bridge of the nose

nasal bones

anteriorly the nose is supported by ____ __________.

alar cartilages

alar cartilages can be remodeled by plastic surgeons to change appearance of nose


Just inside each nostril is a _____ _________. (with guard hairs or _________)

nasal vestibule

the _____ ______ extends posteriorly to the openings into the nasopharynx called _______.

nasal cavity
choanae. (choana is singular)

--choanae are internal nostrils

the _____ ______ divides the nasal cavity into right and left parts.

nasal septum

________, ______ and ________ _____ _______ form the lateral wall on each side of the cavity. (AKA scroll bones)

superior, middle and inferior nasal conchae

the conchae are larger in animals adapted to cold environments.


the purpose of conchae is to...

increase surface area for improved conditioning and filtration of inhaled air.

conditioning = warming and humidifying


four skull bones contain these paired air spaces called _________ _______.

paranasal sinuses.

the purpose of paranasal sinuses is to...

lighten the skull and increase mucus production (each lined with nasal mucosa).

do not confuse with dural venous sinuses! (which are veins that run through the meninges of the brain)


paranasal sinuses are named for the bones that contain them.
List the four paranasal sinuses.

1. frontal sinuses
2. ethmoidal sinuses
3. sphenoidal sinuses
4. maxillary sinuses - largest

each of the paranasal sinuses has a duct draining mucous from it into the nasal cavity. the ducts can become blocked, leading to nasal pressure


The _______ is the space where nasal and oral cavities communicate with esophagus and larynx. This space has shared digestive and respiratory functions.

pharynx (throat)

List three parts of pharynx (superior to inferior)

1. nasopharynx
2. oropharynx
3. laryngopharynx

the ___________ is continuous with the nasal cavity and superior to the soft palate.


the opening of the ________ _____ are found on the lateral walls of the nasopharynx.

auditory tubes

auditory tubes AKA ________________ ____ (tube connecting nasopharynx and middle ear cavity)

pharyngotympanic tube

the nasopharynx houses a single __________ ______ (AKA ________)

pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids)

The __________ ______ is the highest structure in the pharynx.

pharyngeal tonsil

tonsils are located in the _______


list the three types of tonsils

palatine (we can see in the mirror)
lingual (paired at the back of the tongue)

tonsils are parts of the _________ system, these contain clusters of ___________ which monitor _____ ____ for ________.

lymph flow

the edges of the tonsils contain ______ where antigens are trapped as part of the immune response.


the oropharynx begins at the end of the soft palate and ends at the level of the hyoid bone


The opening of the oral cavity into the oropharynx is the ______, defined by two pairs of muscular arches...the ______________ and ________________ arches.

the glossopalatine and pharyngopalatine arches

between the glossopalatine and pharyngopalatine arches are the ________ _______.

palatine tonsils.

the ______________ starts inferior to the hyoid bone and is continuous with the larynx and esophagus.


______ form the lateral wall of the oral cavity and are comprised mainly of the buccinator muscle.


Cheeks end anteriorly as the ____.


there are as many nerve endings in your lips as in your whole back.


lips lack an _________.


the ________ (____) cover the alveolar processes of the teeth.

gingivae (gums)

internally, the upper and lower lips are attached to the gingivae by a ______ ________.

labial frenulum.

the ______ forms the roof of the oral cavity.


the anterior 2/3 of the palate is the ____ ______. The posterior 1/3 is the soft and muscular ____ ______.

hard palate
soft palate

The _____ is the posterior extension of the soft palate which closes off the nasopharynx during the pharyngeal phase of swallowing.


list the three pairs of salivary glands that supply the oral cavity


the _______ salivary glands are the largest


the parotid gland secretes ___-___% of total saliva


where does the parotid duct enter the oral cavity?

opposite the second upper molar

______________ ________ ______ lie inferior to the body of the mandible

submandibular salivary glands

submandibular glands produce ____-____% of total saliva volume


a submandibular duct empties on lateral sides of the lingual frenulum.

lingual frenulum

submandibular gland is most likely to experience sialolighiasis (salivary gland/duct stones)


the __________ salivary glands are inferior to the tongue.


each gland has many tiny __________ _____ which empty lateral to the submandibular ducts.

sublingual ducts

only ___-_____% of total saliva is produced by the sublingual ducts.


list the two types of secretory cells that occur in salivary glands.

1. mucous cells
2. serous cells

mucous cells secrete...


serous cells secrete... (4 things)

salivary amylase

secretory cells are arranged in alveoli

see pic of salivary alveoli


The organ of phonation (voice box) between the trachea and the pharynx.


the larynx is supported by a framework of __________, _________, and _______.

cartilages, ligaments, and muscles

List the three large structural cartilages of the larynx.

1. thyroid cartilage
2. cricoid cartilage
3. epiglottis (epiglottic cartilage)

see pic "major cartilages of the larynx"
anterior, posterior & midsagittal views

The largest cartilage of the larynx is the

thyroid cartilage

True or False:
the thyroid cartilage is incomplete posteriorly


the v-shaped anterior projection of the thyroid cartilage is the _________ __________.

laryngeal prominence ("adam's apple")

The _______ cartilage is just inferior to the thyroid cartilage.


The cricoid cartilage is a complete ____ shaped cartilage.


The spoon shaped cartilage that projects superiorly into the pharynx is the __________.

epiglottis (epiglottic cartilage)

How does the epiglottis prevent materials from entering the airway?

Swallowing moves the epiglottis so that is closes the opening to the larynx (the glottis). This prevents materials entering the airway.

List the smaller paired cartilages that play an important role in sound production.

1. arytenoid cartilages
2. corniculate cartilages
3. cuneiform cartilages

The _________ cartilages are attached to vocal ligaments and intrinsic laryngeal MM. they are completely mobile and held in place by the 8 intrinsic laryngeal MM.

arytenoid cartilages

The intrinsic laryngeal MM are innervated by the _______ nerve.

recurrent laryngeal NN (branches of Vagus N (CN X))

vocal folds are comprised of _____ _________ covered by mucosa.

vocal ligaments

The opening between the vocal folds is the ____ ________.

rima glottids

The __________ folds (AKA false vocal folds) are superior to the __________ folds.

vestibular folds
vocal folds

Do the vestibular folds produce sound?


The vocal folds plus the rima glottids are collectively known as the


How is sound produced?

When air passes through the rima glottids, it causes vibration of the vocal folds which results in sound production.

The largest gland entirely devoted to endocrine function.

thyroid gland

endocrine glands do not have _____. each cell releases hormones directly into a _________.


exocrine glands have _____. (ie salivary glands)


True or False
The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland and does not have ducts.


Where is the thyroid gland located?

inferior to the thyroid cartilage, anterior to the trachea

The thyroid gland has ____ and ____ lobes connected by a midline _______.


The microscopic functional units of the thyroid are the _______ _________.

thyroid follicles

The thyroid follicles are comprised of simple cuboidal cells surrounding a small quantity of liquid called _____________.


thyroglobulin makes ________.


follicle cells secrete _______ _______ into the bloodstream.

thyroid hormone

Thyroid hormone plays several roles in __________ __________ and ___________

regulating metabolism and development

hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are an overproduction or underproduction of the _______ _______.

thyroid hormone.

thyroxin is the more correct name for thyroid hormone


endocrine cells between the thyroid follicles are called ______________ _____.

parafollicular cells

parafollicular cells secrete __________ which stimulates osteoblast activity (reducing blood Calcium)


the four small glands of the posterior surface of the thyroid gland are ___________ glands.

parathyroid glands

The parathyroid glands produce ___________ _______.

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

PTH has opposite effect of calcitonin. stimulates osteoclasts which dissolve bones.


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