Political Science 1100 Final- New terms (Mizzou, Kurklowski)
Terms in this set (78)
An organized group with shared goals and ideals that joins together to run candidates for office and exercise political and electoral power.
A collection of people or organizations that tries to influence public policy.
A party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity.
Politics that focus on candidates, their particular issues and character rather than party affiliation.
Dramatic shift in partisan preferences that drastically alter the political landscape.
An election that signals a party realignment through voter polarization around new issues and personalities.
The gradual rearrangement of party coalitions, based on demographic shifts than on shocks to the political system.
The presence of increasingly conflicting and divided viewpoints between the Democratic and Republican parties.
A party meeting held in the presidential election year for the purposes of nominating a presidential and vice presidential ticket adopting a platform.
National Party Platform
A statement of the general and specific philosophy and policy goals of a political party, usually promulgated at the national convention.
A citizen's personal affinity for a political party, usually expressed by a tendency to vote for the candidates of that party.
How have party Unities scores changed?
Scores have increased drastically over time.
Cooperative relationships that facilitate the resolution of collective problems.
The tendency to form small-scale associations for the public good.
The theory that political power is distributed among a wide array of diverse and competing interest groups.
The theory that interest groups form as a result of changes in the political system.
The theory that public policies are the result of narrowly defined exchanges and transactions among political actors.
Something of value that cannot be withheld from a nonmember of a group, for example, a tax write-off for better environment.
A person finances a group or individual activity.
Free Rider Problem
Potential members fail to join a group because they can get the benefit, or collective good, sought by the group without contributing the effort.
Interest group representative who seeks to influence legislation that will benefit his or her organization or client through political and/or financial persuasion.
A group that represents a specific industry.
The activities of a group or organization that seek to persuade political leaders to support the group's position.
Political Action Committee (PAC)
Officially recognized fund-raising organizations that represent interest groups and are allowed by federal law to make contributions directly to candidates' campaigns.
Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007
Lobbying reform banning gifts to members of Congress and their staffs, toughening disclosure requirements, and increasing time limits on moving from the federal government to the private sector.
Phase of political campaign aimed at wining at winning a primary election.
Election in which voters decide which of the candidates within a party will represent the party in the General Election.
General Election campaign
Phase of a political campaign aimed at winning election to office.
Election in which voters decide which candidates will actually fill elective public offices.
The individual who travels with the candidate and coordinates the campaign.
The individual who coordinates the financial business of the campaign.
The person who develops the overall media strategy for the candidate.
The individual charged with interacting and communicating with journalists on a daily basis.
A private-sector professional who sells to a candidate the technologies, services and strategies required to get the candidate elected.
A campaign consultant who conducts public opinion surveys.
The process by which a campaign reaches individual voters, either by door-to-door solicitation or by telephone.
A push at the end of a political campaign to encourage supporters to go to the polls.
527 Political Committee
Organizations created with the primary purpose of influencing electoral outcomes; the term is typically applied to freestanding interest groups that do not explicitly advocate for the election of a candidate.
Interest groups whose primary purpose is not electoral politics.
Political action committees established to make independent expenditures.
Spending for campaign activity that is not coordinated with a candidate's campaign.
Donations from general tax revenues to the campaign to the campaigns of qualifying presidential candidates.
Donations to presidential campaigns whereby every dollar raised from individuals in amounts less than $251 is matched by federal treasury.
Advertising on behalf of a candidate that stresses the candidate's qualifications, family and issue positions, with no direct reference to the opponent.
Advertising on behalf of a candidate that attacks the opponent's character.
Ad that compares the records and proposals of the candidates, with a bias toward the candidate sponsoring the ad.
Advertising that attempts to counter-act an anticipated attack from the opposition before the attack is launched.
The tendency of states to choose an early date on the nomination calendar.
Representatives of each state who cast the final ballots that actually elect a president.
Member of the electoral college
The reallocation of the number of seats in the House of Reps. after each decennial census.
Already holding an office.
An election that takes place in the middle of a presidential term.
A voter's evaluation of a candidate based on past performance on a particular issue.
A voter's evaluation of a candidate based on what he or she pledges to do about an issue if elected.
The proportion of the voting-age public that casts a ballot.
The thousands of federal government agencies and institutions that implement and administer federal laws and programs.
The firing of a public-office holders of a defeated political party to replace them with loyalists of the newly elected party.
Jobs, grants or other special favors that are given as rewards to friends and political allies for their support.
Reform measure that established the principle of federal employment on the basis of open, competitive exams and created the Civil Service Commission.
A system of employment based on qualifications, test scores and ability rather than party loyalty.
Civil Service System
The merit system by which many federal bureaucrats are selected.
Independent Regulatory Commision
An entity created by Congress outside a major executive department.
10 % of federal workforce not covered by Civil Service System: Fall into three categories
1. Appointive policy-making positions- Nearly 3500 are presidential appointees.
2. Independent Regulatory Commissioners
3. Low-Level, nonpolicy patronage positions- generally concern administrative assistants to policy makers.
Major administrative units with responsibility for a broad area of government operations. Departmental status usually indicates a permanent national interest in a particular government function, such as defense, commerce or agriculture.
Independent Executive Agencies
Governmental units that closely resemble a Cabinet department but have narrower areas of responsibility and perform services rather than regulatory functions.
Businesses established by Congress to perform functions that private businesses could provide.
The 1939 act to prohibit civil servants from taking activist roles in partisan campaigns. This act prohibited federal employees from making political contributions, working for a particular candidate.
The process by which a law or policy is put into operation.
The relatively ironclad relationships and patterns of interaction that occur among agencies, interest groups and congressional committees or subcommittees
The loose and informal relationships that exist among a large number of actors who work in broad policy areas.
Working groups created to facilitate coordination of policy making and implementation across a host of government agencies.
Policy Coordinating Committees
Subcabinet-level committees created to facilitate interactions between agencies and departments to handle complex policy problems.
The ability of bureaucrats to make choices concerning the best way to implement congressional or executive intentions.
A quasi-legislative process resulting in regulations that have the characteristics of a legislative act.
Rules governing the operation of all government programs that have the force of law.
A quasi-judicial process in which a bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties in a manner similar to the way courts resolve disputes.