AP Government Terms From Every Released AP Test
This is a set for every term my AP Government Teacher found on every released AP Government Test. I hope this helps, feel free to drop a comment if it did. This is the biggest set I have ever made...
Terms in this set (100)
Prohibits the making of any law respecting the establishment of religion, impeding the free exercise of religion, abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, interfering with the right to peacefully assemble or prohibiting for a government redress of grievance.
Prohibits unreasonable search and seizures and requires any warrant to be judicially sanctioned and supported by probable cause.
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States, respectively, or to the people.
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
The right of citizens of the United States vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each state, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislatures.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.
The right of citizens of the United States, who are 18 years of age or older, to vote, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of age.
An amendment may be proposed in the form of a joint resolution and must receive either a 2/3 vote by both the House and the Senate or in a constitutional convention by 2/3 of the state legislature. The OFR adds history notes to the amendment and then publishes it. The amendment must then be ratified by 3/4 of the states to become official.
Amendment Process Formal v. Informal
Formal: Is a mainly two step process where an amendment is proposed and then ratified by 3/4 of the states. Informal: Is not directly amending the constitution but instead stating how we should interpret the writing in the constitution.
Americans with Disabilities Act
This act was the first act to address the needs of disabled American preventing them from be discriminated against.
Amicus Curiae Briefs
An amicus curiae brief is when someone who is not a party in a lawsuit as a high interest in the matter and receives permission to write a brief to be submitted to the court. "Friend of the court"
Appellate courts vs District courts
Appellate courts decides appeals from the district courts after a ruling has been made on a matter than one of the parties does not agree with.
The House appropriations committee is in charge of passing appropriations bills which are bills that authorize the government to spend money.
Articles of Confederations v. Constitution
The Articles: Congress can request states to pay taxes; No system of federal courts; No provision to regulate commerce; 13/13 states needed to amend the articles; each state got 1 vote regardless of size. Constitution: Congress can levy taxes; Federal court system created; Congress can regulate commerce; Checks and balance system; 2/3 of congress and 3/4 of states to amend constitution
Bicameral v. Unicameral
Bicameral is a 2 house system which U.S.A. has with the Senate being the upper house and the House of Reps being the lower house, in a unicameral system there is no upper house.
Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights is the first 10 amendments in the constitution and guaranteeing many rights such as the freedom of speech or religion.
A block grant is a grant by the federal government that a local authority can allocate to a wide range of services.
Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board of education was a landmark court case that finally got rid of the ideology of separate but equal and forced schools to integrate blacks and whites.
Buckley v. Valeo
Buckley v. Valeo was a landmark case that upheld limiting the contribution individuals made to specific political campaigns and did not allow government to independent expenditures in campaigns.
Bureaucracy and Congress
The bureaucracy and Congress have a close tie because the bureaucracy it what puts acts of congress into practice.
Bureaucratic Advantage over the President
Bureaucrats have an advantage of the president because bureaucrats usually have a continuity of service in the executive branch.
Bureaucrats have the ability to shape implementation of public policy.
Candidate Centered Campaigns
This is when a campaign is primarily focused on a candidate who is running for office instead of the party or political issues/ideologies.
Grants, issued by the United States Congress, which may be spent only for narrowly defined purposes.
Changes in Presidential Election Processes since 1960
Some changes are that the primary election has moved in most states from a caucus to an open or closed primary where voters are allowed to vote for candidates for presidency.
Checks and Balance
The checks and balance system is part of our 3 branch government where each branch has checks on the other ot make sure no one branch is too powerful.
Citizens United v. FEC
The courts ruled 1) Corporate funding of independent political broadcasts in candidate elections cannot be limited 2) Overruled Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce and parts of McConnell v. FEC
Personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Ended segregation in public places and banned employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin.
Civil Rights Legislature and Federalism
Some civil rights legislature took power away from the states and gave it to the federal government.
Purpose of Civil War Amendments (13th, 14th, 15th Amendments)
The purpose of these amendments were to restructure U.S. so it could become a land of blessings of liberty instead of half slave and half free
Clear and Present Danger (1st Amendment)
Clear and present danger was adopted by the supreme court to decide what limitations can be placed on the freedom of speech and the press when the person in question is depicting a clear and present danger.
Closed Rule for Debate
A closed rule for debate is when the House's committee on rules says a bill may be debated and voted on without and modifications what-so-ever
A motion for cloture of a filibuster in the senate requires a petition by 15% of the present senator and is then voted on must receive 60% of the vote to end the filibuster.
Gives Congress the power to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes.
Committee Chair Power
Whatever party holds the majority in the House of Reps is then granted the chair of every committee which increases the parties power.
Committee Seniority System
In Congress, the seniority system describes the practice of granting privileges to members of Congress (Senators and Representatives) who have served the longest. Those privileges range from choice of offices to choice of committee assignments.
Common Criteria when Voting for Presidential Candidates
Political party, ideology, where they stand on certain issues, platform.
Common Political Activities of Citizens
Voting, joining interest groups/political parties, contacting officials, participating in campaigns.
Congressional committees formed when Senate and House pass a bill in different forms. Party leadership appoints members from each house to iron out the differences and bring back a single bill.
Congressional Committee System and Leadership
Each chamber of Congress has committees set up to perform specific functions, enabling the legislative bodies to accomplish their often complex work more quickly with smaller groups. There are approximately 250 congressional committees and subcommittees, each charged with different functions and all made up of members of Congress.
Congressional Incumbency Advantage
Congressmen have an advantage as incumbents because the people are already familiar with them and so are more likely to vote for them.
Oversight by the United States Congress on the Executive Branch, including the numerous U.S. federal agencies.
Congress influence of Judiciary
Congress is given the power to determine the shape and structure of the Judicial branch including how many supreme court justices there are.
Powers set forth by the United States Constitution, defined by rulings of the Supreme Court, and by its own efforts and by other factors such as history and custom.
House Rep, Senator, and Presidential requirements
House: 25 years old, citizen for 7 years, and reside in the state they represent
Senator: 30 years old, citizen for 9 years, and reside in the state they represent
President: 35 years old, natural born citizen, and has resided in the U.S. for the past 9 consecutive years.
Congressional Response to Supreme Court Ruling
If a ruling is not favorable to Congress, Congress may pass a law or amendment that contests the ruling
Congressional Standing Committees
Committees with fixed membership and jurisdiction, continuing from Congress to Congress.
The Connecticut compromise was a compromise between small and large states that defined our 2 house system of legislature.
Constituents Service Communication
Actions taken by members of congress and their staff to attend to the individual, particular needs of constituents.
Cooperative Federalism v. Dual Federalism
In dual federalism the line that separates the power of the federal and state government is very distinct whereas in the a cooperative federalism the line is blurred.
Core Value of U.S. Political Culture
American political culture contains a number of core ideals and values. Not all Americans share the same views, of course, but the vast majority subscribes to these general ideals, including liberty, equality, democracy, individualism, unity, and diversity.
Since corporations are, to an extent, citizens they have the right to lobby and tell governmental officials what they as businesses want to seen done similar to regular lobbying.
Creating New Federal Courts
Congress is given, under the constitution, the power to create federal courts and decide what cases are heard in them, be it appellate court or a court of original jurisdiction.
Elections that greatly change the political ideology in America such as a switching of a republican dominated presidential streak to a democrat dominate presidential streak.
Death Penalty Supreme Court Rulings
Gregg v. Georgia: Reaffirmed the supreme courts acceptance of the death penalty in America
Coker v. Georgia: Held that death penalty is not acceptable punishment in the case of rape if the victim is not killed
Roper v. Simmons: Death penalty for minors is cruel and unusual punishment
Atkins v. Virginia: The execution of mentally disabled people violate the 8th amendment
Delegates to Major Party Conventions
Tend to be very loyal to the party and well informed on the ideology of the presidential nominees, minority representation has increased over the years
Demographics of Delegates to Presidential Nominee Conventions
Delegates nominated in party conventions usually represent a specific majority of that party, such as the Democratic nominee Barack Obama represents minorities and the republican nominee represents the wealthy whites.
Demographics of Democratic Voters
Mainly young educated people. African American and over minority groups are also very commonly democratic.
Devolution is when the federal government gives up powers to the state governments
Difference Between Political Parties and Interest Groups
The goal of political parties is to elect someone to office, whereas the goal of interest groups is to help a specific cause by lobbying for policies to be passed to further cause.
Differences Between the House and Senate
The Senate equally represents every state with 100 members where as the House is based on population; Senate is the upper house and has required age of 30 years old; Senate can filibuster House can not; House of Reps have 2 year terms while senators have 6 year terms.
Direct Primaries v. Convention System
The convention, or caucus, is when local voters get together to decide who to support for presidency and select delegates for the national convention while in primaries the voting field for presidential nominee is greatly increased to possibly include everyone.
Means of bringing a bill out of committee and to the floor for consideration without a report from the committee and usually without cooperation of the leadership by "discharging" the committee from further consideration of a bill or resolution.
Divided Government Consequences
~With our checks and balance system we may find delays in choosing supreme court justice, delegates, and cabinet members since they are picked by the President but then confirmed by the senate.
Divided Party Control and Presidency
If the president is democratic and congress has a majority of republicans then we may find a stalemate is passing bills since the president will veto it especially if congress doesn't have the numbers to override the veto.
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Even though Dred Scott resided in a free state, because he was black and not officially a citizen of the U.S. then he could not be the citizen of a state and thus was forced back into slavery.
Doctrine of Original Intent v. Living Document
Original intent means that the constitution should be interpreted the way the founders intended it to be whereas the living document means that the constitution should be interpreted as a document that evolved with society.
Drawing Congressional Districts
This is commonly referred to as Gerrymandering where state legislature will draw congressional districts to give a certain party an upper hand in future elections.
The legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.
Electoral Behavior in the U.S.
Some voting behaviors are voting for whatever party you affiliate yourself with, voting with your family, minority and religious groups tending to vote the same way etc.
Each state earns X amount of votes based on their population and depending on the majority of that state the candidate for winning party's chosen electoral voters get to cast their votes almost always voting for who chose them. Once a majority is reached for electoral vote that candidate wins.
Elite -> Pluralist -> Hyperpluralist
Elite Theory: A small percentage of Americans (the wealthiest) control America
Pluralist: All interest groups can work together to help form the best government
Hyperpluralist: Groups of individuals are so strong that the government is weakened
Annual spending on Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, and other mandatory programs is massive compared to other federal spending priorities.
Enumerated/Expressed v. Implied Powers
Enumerate powers are powers given to parts of the government that are directly given by the constitution whereas implied powers are powers inferred from the constitution.
The First Amendment guaranteeing that the government will not create and support an official state church.
Ex Post Facto Law and Bills of Attainder
A law that makes an act that legal when committed illegal, this is prevented under the constitution.
A law that prohibits the use of illegally obtained evidence in a criminal trial.
An international agreement, usually regarding routine administrative matters not warranting a formal treaty, made by the executive branch of the US government without ratification by the Senate.
A rule or order issued by the president to an executive branch of the government and having the force of law.
Federal Budge Entitlements
Entitlements are sets of criteria that may refer to certain officials who then receive benefits from the federal government.
Federal Communications Commission
An independent agency of the United States government, created by Congressional statute to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.S. territories.
Federal Election Laws
The Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 is a United States federal law which increased disclosure of contributions for federal campaigns. It was amended in 1974 to place legal limits on the campaign contributions.
Federal Government and Negative Advertising
In Citizens United v. FEC the Supreme Court found that political speech is indispensable to democracy and thus the government does not regulate negative advertising for candidates.
Economic aid issued by the United States government out of the general federal revenue. A federal grant is an award of financial assistance from a federal agency to a recipient to carry out a public purpose of support or stimulation authorized by a law of the United States.
Federal Judge Nominees
Federal judges serve for life under good behavior but may be impeached by congress. Thy are nominated by the president but must be confirmed by the senate.
Federal Reserve Board
The central bank of the United States. It was created by the Congress to provide the nation with a safer, more flexible, and more stable monetary and financial system.
Federal System of Government
In the U.S. the federal government system is where the power of the nation as a whole is divided amongst many levels of government from Federal -> State -> County -> Township
Federalism is a system of government in which the same territory is controlled by two levels of government. Such as Federal and State government.
Federalist No. 10
An essay that was written by James Madison and the tenth of The Federalist Papers, a series arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution.
A collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution.
A filibuster (in the senate only because the House of Reps does not have a filibuster) is when one speaker or a series of speaker talk about a bill, on topic or off topic, until the bill is talked to death. Required 60% of present senators to end a filibuster.
Fiscal v. Monetary Policy
Monetary policy is typically implemented by a central bank, while fiscal policy decisions are set by the national government. However, both monetary and fiscal policy may be used to influence the performance of the economy in the short run.
Fiscal and Cooperative Federalism
Cooperative federalism is the idea that both the federal and state government share power equally where as fiscal federalism is where money controls just about everything i.e. congress' power of the federal budget and American treasury
Foreign Policy Deference
Taking a break here, I will be done with this by the end of the weekend if you are reading this on 5-1-15. I got about 170 more to go...