One control channel is the broadcast control channel in GSM and provides system information to allow mobiles to attach to the cell.
Increases the data rate by using multilevel signalling.
Enables 3 bits of data to be transmitted in the time it takes to transmit bit in GSM/GPRS.
Frequency Shift Keying
Uses segments from sinusoidal waveforms that have different frequencies (waves closer together and further apart).
On Off Keying
The simplest modulation method for digital signals. A burst of signal (on) is sent to represent data 1 and nothing (off) is sent to represent 0.
Phase Shift Keying
Uses segments of sinusoids that have the same frequency and amplitude but differ in phase (goes up and down, then down and up).
Uses segments which have different amplitudes to represent on/off (heights of wavelength).
The process of turning the data bits (ones and zeros) into transmitted waveforms.
Number of symbols per second.
The duration (time) of the symbol.
Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK)
A phase shift of 180 degrees (or half a cycle) means that there can only be two different states. A phase change of 180 degrees is seen as an 'inversion' of the carrier wave and a change of amplitude by -1.
The attenuation happens over a short range. Signal takes two paths, with different lengths due to reflection etc. Signal arrives to received at different times, causing interferences.
Signal attenuation (loss of intensity) which occurs with increased distance from the base station.
Relatively large changes of distance are required to produce significant variations of received signal strength. One dominant signal is sent.
If a device moves closer to the base station, the signal frequency rises. As a device moves away from the base station, the signal frequency drops.
High Speed (Downlink/Uplink)Packet Access Uplink
HS(D/U)PA. Uses QPSK, giving 2bits per modulation symbol. Can be deployed on existing 3G networks with minimum disruption. Backwards compatible with previous releases of 3G. Can be deployed at marginal cost.