If during surgery you notice an item at the edge of a sterile field, you should
Consider it unsterile if you are not absolutely certain
Preparing a patient's skin for surgery
Reduces the bacterial flora to a level that can be controlled by the patient's immune system
Ovariohysterectomy is most commonly performed in
Young female dogs
Which of the following does not have to be sterile during a surgical procedure to maintain aseptic technique? Mask Drapes Instruments Gloves
The effectiveness of a surgical scrub of the hands and arms with an antimicrobial soap depends on the
Combination of contact time and scrubbing action
Which statement regarding first-intention wound healing is false? It occurs without infection It occurs when the skin edges are held together in apposition It usually has some degree of suppuration It occurs with minimal scar formation
It usually has some degree of suppuration
Which of the following statements about electrocautery is false? If the patient is not properly grounded, the surgeon may get shocked The intensity of the current passed through the unit is adjustable Small bleeding blood vessels are sealed with a controlled electrical current that burns the bleeding end All portions of the electrocautery unit can and should be sterilized
All portions of the electrocautery unit can and should be sterilized
Before staring the surgical procedure, the technician who has scrubbed in with the surgeon should do all of the following except Count the gauze sponges in the pack Arrange the instruments to be quickly and easily located Place the scalpel blade on the handle Open the suture material
Open the suture material
An ovariohysterectomy may be performed for all of the following reasons except Prevention of prostate cancer Prevention of pyometra Sterilization of the animal Prevention of estus
Prevention of prostate cancer
Which of the following statements is true? Female cats over age 3 are too old to be spayed Female ferrets that are not bred or spayed are likely to develop a life-threatening anemia All female animals become fat after spaying It is beneficial to allow a female dog to have one litter before spaying
Female ferrets that are not bred or spayed are likely to develop a life-threatening anemia
If an animal goes home with a bandage, the client should observe the bandage daily and remove it if any of the following are observed except Skin irritation at the edges of the bandage All bandages should be removed 24 hours after being applied The bandage is wet The position of the bandage has shifted
All bandages should be removed 24 hours after being applied
Which of the following is not true about dogs being spayed before their first estrus cycle? The hair coat will change and become easier to manage with less shedding The surgery is generally considered easier to perform if the bitch has not been through an estrus cycle Mammary cancer is less likely to occur in a bitch that has been spayed before her first estrus cycle The uterus and ovaries enlarge after the first estrus cycle. This necessitates a larger abdominal incision when the bitch is spayed
The hair coat will change and become easier to manage with less shedding
Which one of the following statements regarding pyometra is false? The bitch that goes to surgery will have the ovaries and uterus removed The bitch that goes to surgery will have only her uterus removed The uterus may have ruptured before surgery begins The patient represents a high-risk anesthesia case, because other organs in the body may be compromised
The bitch that goes to surgery will have only her uterus removed
All of the following statement regarding cesarean sections are true except Once the newborns are removed, the mother is out of danger, and most of the technicians attention should be on the newborns A cesarean section is also known as a hysterotomy For some breeds of dogs, such as the English Bulldog, it is expected that a cesarean section will need to be performed Wait to put the mother with the newborns until after she has adequately recovered from anesthesia
Once the newborns are removed, the mother is out of danger, and most of the technicians attention should be on the newborns
Which of the following statements regarding cesarean sections is false? Bloody vaginal discharge is to be expected following surgery The newborns delivered by C-section are under the effects of anesthesia The surgical incision should be observed by the client after 1 week because it is best not to disturb the nursing newborns The newborn should be be immediately removed from the membranous sac that covers its body when it is removed from the uterus
The surgical incision should be observed by the client after 1 week because it is best not to disturb the nursing newborns
When a male dog is presented to the hospital for a castration procedure, the technician should do all of the following except Make sure that the dog is a male Make sure that there are two testicles in the scrotum Make sure that he is not in heat Make sure that there is a telephone number to reach the client
Make sure that he is not in heat
When a tomcat is presented to the hospital for a castration procedure, the technician should do all of the following except Make sure that the cat is a a male Make sure that he has not been previously castrated Make sure that there are two testicles in the scrotum Make sure that he is not in heat
Make sure that he is not in heat
When a bitch is presented to the hospital for an ovariohysterectomy, the technician should do all of the following except Make sure that the dog is a female Get a telephone number where the client can be reached that day Make sure that she is not in heat, because it would significantly complicate the surgery Give the dog aspirin, because the surgical procedure will be painful
Give the dog aspirin, because the surgical procedure will be painful
When a queen is presented to the hospital for an ovariohysterectomy, the technician should do all of the following except Make sure the cat is a female Get a telephone number where the client can be reached that day Make sure that the cat is not in heat, because it would significantly complicate the surgery Get the client or guardian's signature on the consent form
Make sure that the cat is not in heat, because it would significantly complicate the surgery
When a dog is to be castrated, the veterinary technician should prepare the surgical site. The incision is most commonly made in what location?
When a cat is to be castrated, the veterinary technician should prepare the surgical site. The incision is most commonly made in what location?
When a dog is to be spayed, the veterinary technician should prepare the surgical site. The incision is most commonly made in what location?
Abdominal ventral midline
The hair coat can be most efficiently and gently removed when preparing a dog to be spayed by which method?
Clipping against the grain of the hair with electrical clippers using a No. 40 blade
Which of the following statements would be false after serious oral surgery, such as mandibular fracture repair or oral-nasal tumor resection? The patient may refuse to eat The patient may need a gastrotomy tube The patient may refuse to drink The patient will no longer be in pain
The patient will no longer be in pain
When feeding the patient through a tube, the technician should
Flush the tube with water
Which of the following statements about GI surgery is false? The patient should be fed immediately upon recovery from anesthesia Before closing the abdomen, the surgical team should check for sponges, instruments, strands of suture material, needles, and other possible foreign objects During surgery additional sterile instruments, drapes, and gloves should be immediately available for the surgeon to exchange if contamination occurs GI surgery comes with a high risk of bacterial contamination of the abdomen
The patient should be fed immediately upon recovery from anesthesia
A semipermanent feeding tube may be placed in all of the following ways except Through the nose Through a pharyngostomy site Through a gastrostomy site Through the mouth
Through the mouth
All of the following statements are true about GI surgery except It is absolutely essential to fast all patients before GI surgery. The GI tract must be empty before surgery At no point is the GI tract sterile, therefore it is important to guard against contamination Irrigation of the peritoneal cavity with a sterile isotonic solution after GI surgery helps reduce the number of microorganisms that remain free in the peritoneum following the procedure The surgical assistant must be alert to the possibility of intestinal contents contaminating the abdominal cavity and must help the surgeon prevent this from happening
It is absolutely essential to fast all patients before GI surgery. The GI tract must be empty before surgery
It is important that the nursing care provided to paralyzed patients focuses on patient comfort. The prevention of decubital ulcers can be accomplished by all of the following procedures except Frequent turning or repositioning of the patient's position Adequate padding in the cage or bed Appropriate analgesic therapy Whirlpool bath hydrotherapy
Appropriate analgesic therapy
Proptosis of the globe can be caused by
Overzealous restraint of the animal
An abscess is
A "walled-off" or circumscribed accumulation of pus
All of the following are instructions to give to clients of animals that have Penrose drains placed except An Elizabethan collar may be needed Clean the skin around the drain with warm water or dilute chlorhaxadine The drain will fall out, there is no need to return for removal Carefully watch the animal and prevent it from licking or chewing at the drain
The drain will fall out, there is no need to return for removal
The client should be instructed to contact the veterinary hospital if any of the following occur with a splint or cast except The animal chews at the splint or cast The splint or cast is wet The leg look swollen above or below the cast The animal is walking on or using the splinted or casted leg
The animal is walking on or using the splinted or casted leg
Proper splint and bandage care includes all of the following except Washing the splint or bandage daily Preventing the bandage or splint from becoming wet Inspecting the bandage or splint daily for any change, such as swelling above or below the splint or bandage Inspecting the bandage or splint for any shifting or change in position on the limb
Washing the splint or bandage daily
Which of the following is not true of an aural hematomas? Must be drained Is repaired by trimming back the pinna Is painful and bothersome to the animal May be drained and bandaged by wrapping the head with the ear folded back across the top of the head
Is repaired by trimming back the pinna
When a dog or cat is spayed, the surgical incision is most commonly made
Midline, caudal to the umbilicus
Suture materials Are all absorbale Are nonabsorabable Can be braided or monofilament Are only supplied with a needle attached
Can be braided or monofilament
When passing surgical instruments to the surgeon, the technician should do all of the following except Gently but firmly slap the palm of the surgeon with the instrument Pass the instrument in the open position Pass the instrument with the handle placed into the surgeon's hand Pass the curved instrument so that it is oriented in the surgeon's hand with the concave side up
Pass the instrument in the open position
When assisting the surgeon, the technician should
Attach the scalpel blade using a pair of hemostats or needle holders to hold the blade
Staples and other clips can be
Used in infected wounds
Surgical instruments should be Lubricated with oil between uses Cleaned without water to avoid the possibility of rusting Placed on surfaces, never dropped or thrown Cleaned with abrasive cleaners
Placed on surfaces, never dropped or thrown
External fixation devices include all of the following except Cast Splint Bone plate Kirschner-Ehmer apparatus
Overinflation or underinflation of the endotracheal tube cuff can result in all of the following except Prevention of fluid aspiration into the lungs Pressure necrosis of the cells lining the trachea Inability to keep the patient under anesthesia with the expected concentration of gas anesthetic Increased levels of waste gas anesthesia in the surgical room
Prevention of fluid aspiration into the lungs
A chest tube is placed when an animal has
There is more concern about pulling out the ET tube too soon in what breed of dog
Difficult or abnormal birth
Surgical procedures of the ear include all of the following except Otoplasty Bullas osteotomy Aural hematoma drainage Enucleation
Surgical procedures of the eye and adrenal structures include all of the following except Entropion repair Keratectomy Onychectomy Enucleation
The animal is to be prepared for a cystotomy. What part of the body is prepped?
The animal is the be prepared for an ovariohysterectomy. What part of the body s prepped?
The animal is to be prepared for a femoral head ostectomy. What part of the body is prepped?
The animal is to be prepared for an orchidectomy. What part of the body is prepped?
The animal is to be prepared for a popliteal lymph node biopsy. What part of the body is prepped?
Caudal aspect of the stifle
A declaw is also known as
Which of the following is not part of the spermatic cord? Panpinoform plexus Vas deferens Testicular artery Epididymis
Which of the following is not completely removed in an ovariohysterectomy? Broad ligament Ovaries Uterine horns Oviducts
Enucleation may be required to correct
Proptosis of the eye
Which of the following is a needle driver that is also able to cut suture? Hegar-Olsen Mayo-Hegar Brown-Adson Rochester-Pean
Which of the following forceps has the best crushing action? Rochester-Carmalt Rochester-Pean Ochsner Crile
Which of the following does not describe a characteristic of ethylene oxide? Carcinogenic Teratogenic Mutagenic Mitogenic
Which of the following suture materials persists in the body for the longest period? Polydioxanone Prolene Chromic catgut Vicryl
Scrotal swelling after orchidectomy is most likely due to a
Which of the following instruments is the only one appropriate for handling tissues during surgery? Dressing forceps Standard surgical scissors Sponge forceps Rat-tooth forceps
What suture pattern is commonly used to close the skin of cattle following a rumenotomy?
Continuous horizontal mattress
Which of the following suture materials is most appropriate to close the muscle layers of a cow following a left-displaced abomasum surgery? 3-0 catgut 3-0 polydioxanone 3 chromic catgut 3 polydioxanone
3 chromic catgut
Which of the following statements regarding pyometra is incorrect? Ovariohysterectomy is usually curative A purulent vaginal discharge is always present Affected females usually have polyuria and polydipsia It often occurs soon after a heat cycle
A purulent vaginal discharge is always present
Which of the following is not considered an elective procedure? Orchidectomy Ovariohysterectomy Onychecotomy Enucleation of a proptosed eye
Enucleation of a proptosed eye
Nephrectomy refers to
The removal of a kidney
When preparing for an orthopedic surgery, shaving the surgical site should be done
Just after induction of anesthesia
Fracture apposition refers to
Placing the bones back in to their normal position
A Caslick operation is done in horses to
Which of the following agents can be used as both an antiseptic as well as a disinfectant? Quaternary ammonium compounds Mercurial compounds Isopropyl alcohol Formaldehyde
For which of the following surgeries are stay sutures not normally necessary? Cystotomy Gastrotomy Intestinal anastamosis Hepatic biopsy
What is the minimum number of throws required when making a surgical knot?
When is it appropriate to use a hand tie instead of an instrument tie?
A hand tie can be used any time an instrument can
What technique can be used to help prevent a suture from slipping off the uterine stump?
Which of the following is an advantage of monofilament material over multifilament material? Greater knot security Greater suture strength Less likely to cause suture reactions Passes through tissue more easily
Passes through tissue more easily
Which of the following suture sizes is most appropriate for eye surgeries? 0 3-0 6-0 10-0
Why is it important to minimize the amount of dead space when suturing?
To decrease the chance of seroma formation
Which of the following is an absorbable suture material? Polydioxanone Prolene Silk Cotton
What factor will not influence how rapidly suture materials are absorbed by the body? Age of the patient Presence of infection The location of the suture The composition of the suture material
Age of the patient
Which of the following is not considered a contaminated surgery? Anal sac removal Dental extractions Intestinal anastamosis Gastrotomy
Anal sac removal
Which of the following forceps should not be used to hold the edges of the incision open? Rat tooth Brown-adson Crile Allis tissue
Which of the following does not describe a type of surgical scissors? Mayo Metzanbaum Iris Lembert
A sponge count should be done
At the beginning of the surgery and before closure
When performing a canine orchidectomy, the location of the incision is usually
Which of the following clinical sign s would not normally be seen if a dog were suffering from hemorrhage after an ovariohysterectomy? Decreased HR Pale MM Slow recovery time from anesthesia Slow capillary refill time
You are monitoring a cat during an exploratory surgery and notice the pupils are central and dilated. The cat is
Impossible to determine without more information
Which of the following does not cause an increase in respiratory rate in an anesthetized animal? Increased blood CO2 Anesthesia is too light Increased PaO2 Hyperthermia
What is the proper term for trimming the edges of a jagged tear before suturing?
Which of the following is not a factor influencing the formation of exuberant granulation tissue? Presence of infection Amount of missing tissue Depth of the wound Location of the wound
Depth of the wound
If a surgical incision is dehiscing, the discharge, if present, is most likely to be
Which of the following agents has been associated with causing neurologic disorders in cats? Chlorhexadine Providone iodine Quaternary ammonium compounds Hexachlorophene
If a nonsterile person must move to the other side of a sterile person, the nonsterile person should pass
Facing the back of the surgeon
When opening a double-wrapped gown pack, nonscrubbed surgical personnel may touch the
Which of the following suture materials is most likely to cause stitch granulomas if left in too long? Silk Cotton Nylon Prolene
When scrubbing, the hands should be held
Above the elbows
When cleaning instruments, the instruments should first be soaked in a surgical soap solution to
Which of the following patterns is not suitable for the closure of an intestinal biopsy incision? Simple continuous Simple interrupted Everting Inverting
Which of the following does not need to be included when labeling a surgical pack? Contents of the pack Date the pack was made up Initials or name of the person making up the pack Date the pack must be used
Date the pack must be used
Which of the following hemostatic forceps has striations different from the others? Halstead mosquitoes Crile Rochester-Pean Rochester-Carmalt
Which of following is not the formal name of a retractor? Finochietto Gelpi Lembert Balfour
Which of the following is not a requirement for fracture healing? Apposition Shearing Fixation Reduction
Using the dissection method, which parts of the distal forelimb are removed in an onychectomy?
Distal phalanx and nail
Anterior drawer movement detects a problem with the
An incision into the bladder is known as a
Which of the following conditions does not require surgical repair? Gastric dilation and volvulus Intussusception Mesenteric torsion Ileus
A laminectomy is used to treat
Intervertebral disk disease
If a fracture is found on the proximal part of the tibia, it is
Distal to the femur
If the testicles are not palpable, and a cryptorchidectomy is performed, the incision would most likely be
In dogs, the most common location for a thoracotomy incision is
Between the ribs
What is the minimum number of air changes per hour required for adequate ventilation in a surgical suite?
Which of the following disinfectants has the weakest virucidal activity? Glutaraldehyde (2%) Quaternary ammonium compounds at standard concentrations Formalin (37%) Isopropyl alcohol (70%)
Quaternary ammonium compounds at standard concentrations
Which of the following does not describe a type of surgical scissors? Iris Metzenbaum Wire-cutting Mayo-Hegar
Which of the following instruments is most suitable for the removal of bone to perform spinal surgery? Rongeurs Curette Periosteal elevator Trephine
Clear fluid removed from thoracic cavity is known as
Where is the most likely place for a rumenotomy incision in a dairy cow?
Left paralumbar fossa
What does a change in color in autoclave tape indicate to a surgical nurse?
During the autoclaving process, steam has reached the tape
Assuming 15 psi, the minimum conditions that must be met to ensure that a pack has been adequately sterilized by autoclaving are
121 degrees C for minutes
Which of the following is not a concern when assisting a surgeon in a canine C-section surgery? Minimizing anesthetic drugs that may pass on to the puppies Minimizing the time the bitch is in dorsal recumbency because of the weight of the uterus on the aorta Suctioning fluid from the puppies' nasal cavities and mouths to stimulate breathing Intubating the puppies
Intubating the puppies
Which of the following is not a primary concern when assisting a surgeon performing a pyometra surgery? Providing preoperative and intraoperative antibiotics for the patient Gentle handling of the friable tissue to prevent rupture and drainage of the contents of the uterus into the abdominal cavity Fluid therapy to diurese the kidneys Lidocaine infusion to prevent ventricular arrythmias
Lidocaine infusion to prevent ventricular arrythmias
When assisting a surgeon in a gastric dilation and volvulus surgery, your immediate concern is not with which of the following Establish IV access to deliver shock doses of fluids Calculate lidocaine dose for CRI Monitor for cardiac arrhythmias intraoperatively ans postoperatively Prepare ultrasound unit to confirm gastric dilation and volvulus status of animal
Prepare ultrasound unit to confirm gastric dilation and volvulus status of animal
What size scalpel blade fits on a No. 3 scalpel handle? No. 10 No. 20 No. 21 No. 30
What size scalpel blade fits on a No. 4 scalpel handle? No. 10 No. 12 No. 15 No. 20
What is meant by the term pathogenic bacteria?
Bacteria that cause disease
Which of the following need not be considered in the timing of the autoclave cycle? Time required to heat up the interior of the chamber Time required to allow the steam to penetrate the interior of the packs Time required to seal the chamber Time required to sterilize those items in contact with the steam
Time required to seal the chamber
The definition of sterile is
Without microbes or living spores
What items should personnel wear when entering the operating room?
Cap, mask, booties, and clean scrubs or gown
Which of the following surgical packs would not be considered contaminated and would not need to be reautoclaved? Single-wrapped paper pack stored on an open shelf for 8 weeks Pack that was opened for a procedure but not used and needed for the next day's procedure Double-wrapped paper pack stored in a closed cabinet for 6 weeks Instrument in an autoclave pouch that has a very small tear near the top of the pack
Double-wrapped paper pack stored in a closed cabinet for 6 weeks
Instruments are autoclaved With the ratchets closed to prevent tearing the wrap material With the ratchets open to allow steam exposure to the entire surface Always in a surgical tray to prevent the instruments form shifting Without touching any other instruments to prevent corrosion
With the ratchets open to allow steam exposure to the entire surface
An advantage of using a Gelpi retractor over a Senn retractor is
The Gelpi is self-retaining
What three factors determine whether a microbe will cause disease?
Number of pathogens, host resistance, and virulence of the pathogen
What specifically does the strip on the autoclave tape indicate when it turns dark?
The correct temperature has been reached
Metzenbaum scissors are used only for
Where is the sterile zone located on scrubbed personnel?
Front, from the neck to the waist, including the arms
Rank the following from greatest tensile strength to least? 00 gut, 3-0 vicryl, 1 chromic gut, 6-0 silk 1 chromic gut, 00 gut, 3-0 vicryl, 6-0 silk 6-0 silk, 3-0 vicryl, 00 gut, 1 chromic gut 6-0 silk, 3-0 vicryl, 1 chromic gut, 00 gut
1 chromic gut, 00 gut, 3-0 vicryl, 6-0 silk
Why must instrument milk be used after ultrasonic cleaning?
To replace lubrication removed by the ultrasonic cleaner
What needle type is reusable? Swaged-on Taper point Trocar tip Eyed
Which of the operating room personnel should face the sterile field during a procedure?
All personnel, both scrubbed in and nonsterile
Which of the following is not a major criterion used to classify suture material? Absorbable verses nonabsorbable Tensile strength versus size Synthetic versus natural Braided versus monofilament
Tensile strength versus size
An advantage of braided suture over monofilament is
When attaching an animal to an ECG, which lead is hooked up to the right foreleg?
When attaching an ECG, which leg should have the red lead attached to it?
Left hind leg
A disinfectant labeled to be virucidal
How often should the instrument milk be changed?
Every 18 days
When autoclaving, the minimum temperature and exposure time for the center of the surgical packs is
250 degrees F for 15 minutes
What is the significance of an autoclave that will not properly seal, but steam still rises from it?
The pressure will not increase, which is required to meet a minimum temperature for sterilization
In general, the difference between a disinfectant and an antiseptic is
Disinfectants are agents used on inanimate objects, and antiseptic agents are used on living tissues
How can you help prevent "strike through" during surgery?
Assist in keeping the surgical drapes and gown from getting wet during surgery
Why is a typical autoclave cycle set for 20 minutes on an instrument?
This allows time for steam penetration to the center of the pack and still provides the minimum time of steam exposure
The agent used in gas sterilization is
Needle holders that have scissors, as well as a needle-holding surface, are named
Rochester-Carmalt forceps have
Longitudinal serrations with a crosshatched pattern at the tips
A buhner needle is used
In repair of bovine vaginal and uterine prolapses
A snook hook is typically used during
What does the medical term ovariohysterectomy mean?
Removal of the ovaries and uterus only
An accumulation of purulent discharge within the uterus is called
A pack double wrapped in muslin and kept in a closed cabinet is good for how long?
Instruments suitable for cutting suture include
Operating scissors, scissors on Olsen-Hegar needle holders, and Mayo scissors
What is a Steinman IM pin?
An intramedullary pin used in orthopedics
You are checking on a recent surgical wound and find that the tissue is slightly warmer and redder than the surrounding tissue. What is the significance of this?
This is normal because the first stage of wound healing is inflammation
What should you wear when cleaning the surgical suite before and after surgeries?
Cap, mask, booties, and clean scrubs
What should you be wearing when performing as a nonsterile surgical assistant?
Mask, cap, show covers, and clean scrubs
While you are performing as a sterile surgical assistant, your mask slips down below your nose. What should you do?
The nonsterile assistant may secure the mask in position while standing behind you
Which of the following is not an advantage to spaying a bitch? Eliminates the hemorrhagic discharge associated with the estrus stage of the cycle Decreases the risk of mammary cancer Eliminates estrus behavior Eliminates the risk of pyometra associated with multiple nonpregnant estrus cycles
Eliminates the hemorrhagic discharge associated with the estrus stage of the cycle
Which of the following is not a recommended agent for patient surgical preparation? Chlorhexadine Roccal Alcohol Providone iodine
Abscesses are generally allowed to heal open to provide continuous drainage. This type of wound healing is considered
Which of the following best describes the location of an incision through the skin and linea alba, extending from the xiphoid process to the umbilicus? Flank Paracostal Paramedian Ventral midline
C-section in cattle are most commonly performed via what surgical approach?
Through the left paralumbar fossa
Emasculators are used
In large animal castrations
You are to assist with a rumenotomy. Where do you prep for the surgery?
Left paralumbar fossa
A disadvantage of tilting the surgical table so the patient's head is lower than its tail is
The increased pressure on the diaphragm interferes with respiration
A visiting relief veterinarian whom you are assisting in surgery asks you to provide a nonabsorbable suture, less than 2-0 in size. Which of the following would meet the request? 3-0 chromic gut 4-0 silk 00 Dermalin nylon 0 polydioxanone
Hanging preps are
Often used for orthopedic procedures that involve a limb
A surgical prep for feline castration involves
Plucking or pulling the hair from the scrotum before the surgical scrub
Which of these is not a common surgical site for correction of a left-displaced abomasum in cattle? Right paralumbar Left paralumbar Ventral midline Right paramedian
Postoperative care for horses following castration includes
Exercise twice daily to promote drainage
The term that means " surgically opening the abdominal cavity" is
What parameters does the pulse oximeter measure?
Oxygen saturation of hemoglobin and heart rate
Which of the following is false regarding the ECG? It measures the electrical impulses of the heart There can be a normal ECG tracing when there is no cardiac output There is always a pulse beat with each QRS complex Alcohol and sterile lubricant will enhance the connection of the skin leads
There is always a pulse beat with each QRS complex
What orthopedic fixation consists of pins that penetrate fractured bones and skin from the outside and are held in place externally by bolts attached to another cross pin?
What is a nosocomial infection?
Which of the following should not be used to help prevent hypothermia in surgical patients? Electric heating pad set on low War-water circulating pad Warm rice pads Towel placed between the surgery table and patient
Electrical heating pad set on low
While preparing for what type of surgical procedure would you make sure that Jacob's bone chuck is sterilized and available?
Which of the following is not an advantage to neutering a male dog? Decreased risk for perineal hernias Decreased roaming It will prevent it from lifting its leg to urinate Decreased aggression toward other dogs
It will prevent it from lifting its leg to urinate
Which of the following can be used as a surgical scrub on a patient? Providone iodine solution Chlorhexadine scrub Alcohol Nolvasan solution
Which of the following need not be done before moving a horse into surgery for a general anesthesia procedure? Remove the shoes Rinse out the mouth Clip as much of the surgical area as possible Perform a complete tail wrap
Perform a complete tail wrap
What is an important measure that can help prevent myostitis during equine surgery?
Provide proper padding
Which of following is not true regarding cyrtorchidism in horses? One or both of the testicles have not descended into the prepuce Surgery for removal of the undescended testicle is more involved than a normal castration It is an inheritable condition Stallions affected with unilateal crytorchidism will breed mares
One or both of the testicles have not descended into the prepuce
What nerve in the horse's head should be protected from injury during prolonged surgical procedures?
A gastrotomy refers to
A surgical incision into the stomach
During a surgical scrub, you bump your hand on the facet. What should you do?
You have contaminated yourself and must start the entire scrub over
Why are such elaborate measures taken to maintain aseptic technique during surgery?
To decrease the risk of contamination into the surgical site and interference with wound healing
What is meant by the term iatrogenic?
Induced or caused by the veterinary surgeon or staff
A fenestrated drape
Has a window opening in middle for the surgery to be performed through
What is the pressure that must be reached in a steam autoclave for the temperature to reach 121.5 degrees C?
Healing of a properly sutured surgical wound is most appropriately termed
Which of the following has the poorest potential for healing and return to normal function after drainage and effective surgical repair? Bone GI tract Liver Nervous tissue
What best describes the location of an incision extending from the xiphoid process to the umbilicus of an animal?
What agent, method, or device is most appropriate for sterilizing an electric drill to be used in an orthopedic surgical procedure?
Ethylene oxide gas
What agent, method, or device is most appropriate for sterilizing a needle holder to be used in a surgical procedure?
What agent, method, or device is most appropriate for sterilizing a pair of dissecting scissors to be used in a surgical procedure?
Liquid chemical disinfectant
Which of the following describes the minimum exposure time and temperature to which all parts of an autoclaved surgical pack should be exposed to achieve sterility? 121 C for 15 min 121 F for 15 min 250 C for 20 min 250 F for 20 min
121 C for 15 min
Which of the following is the most effective and timely indicator that sterilization conditions have been met in an autoclaved surgery pack? Autoclave tape Chemical indicator Culture test Melting pellet
What is the proper term for microorganisms that gain entrance into an incision during a surgical procedure?
Which of the following do/does not have to be sterile during a surgical procedure to maintain aseptic technique? Drapes Gloves Gown Mask
What is the agent for autoclave sterilization?
What size of electrical clipper blade is most commonly used for removing the hair form a surgical site?
Which of the following is not an effective form of surgical hemostasis? Crushing Curettage Ligation Pressure
Which of the following is not a likely cause of dehiscence of an abdominal incision? Excessive physical activity Stormy recovery from anesthesia Surgical wound infection Suture material larger than needed
Suture material larger than needed
Which of the following is not an effective aseptic surgical technique? Consider a sterile item to be nonsterile if it touches a nonsterile item If the sterility of an item is in doubt, consider it sterile Nonscrubbed personnel can touch nonsterile items only Only sterile items can touch other sterile items
If the sterility of an item is in doubt, consider it sterile
Which of the following does not enhance the healing of an open wound? Debridement Exuberant granulation tissue Granulation tissue Wound flushing
Exuberant granulation tissue
Which of the following is not a characteristic of first-intention wound healing? Minimal contamination Minimal tissue damage No continuous movement of wound edges form body movement Wound edges not approximated
Wound edges not approximated
What incision is most appropriate for exploratory surgery of the abdomen of a dog in which the precise location of the problem is not known?
Which of the following is not an early sign of wound dehiscence during the first 24 hours after abdominal surgery? Body temperature elevation of 1 degree to 2 degrees Serosangineous discharge from the incision Swollen incision Very warm incision
Body temperature elevation of 1 degree to 2 degrees
The main goal of aseptic surgical technique is to prevent contamination of the
What factor relating to infection of a surgical wound can aseptic technique reasonably expect to significantly influence?
Number of microorganisms entering the wound
The effectiveness of a surgical scrub of the hands and arms with a bactericidal soap depends on
Combination of contact time and scrubbing action
Which of the following is a surgical scrub soap that forms a bacteriostatic film over the skin when it is used exclusively? Chlorhexidine Chlorpheniramine Hexachlorophene Providone-iodine
Which of the following does not normally need to be sterilized as a part of good aseptic sugical technique? Cap Drapes Gown Scrub brush
Liquid chemical sterilization is used primarily for
Instruments with sharp edges
The time necessary to disinfect surgical instruments with liquid chemicals can be shortened by
Warming the solution
What surgical drape material prevents bacteria from penetrating the drape by capillary action when the top surface of the drape becomes wet?
What surgical instrument should not be routinely steam sterilized? Backhaus towel clamp Halstead mosquito forceps Mayo-Hegar needle holder Metzenbaum scissors
What is the most appropriate wound-flushing solution?
What incision is the most appropriate for a rumenotomy in a standing cow?
What, if any, operating room personnel should always face away from sterile fields during a surgical procedure?
Neither nonscrubbed nor scrubbed personnel
What is the significance of ventral midline surgical wound dehiscence of the muscle, subcutaneous tissue, and skin layers?
Why is a recent surgical wound usually slightly warmer than surrounding normal tissues?
When does a sutured surgical wound begin to gain significant strength from production of collagen strands, so that the wound edges are held together by not only the sutures?
Wound contraction is produced by
Movement of the whole thickness of the skin
As a part of effective aseptic technique, surgical gowns
Are commonly made of cloth or paper
Which of the following is not a sign of hemorrhagic shock in a postsurgical patient? Deep, slow breathing Slow capillary refill Tachycardia Weakness
Deep, slow breathing
The usual significance of a small seroma beneath a skin suture line is
The healing potential for a fractured bone that is properly aligned and kept immobile is
What coloration indicates the best blood supply to the edges of a wound in nonpigmented skin?
What abdominal incision is most appropriate for a standing C-section on a heifer?
What portion of a surgical gown is considered sterile during surgery?
Front, from the waist up, including the arms
What bacterial form is most easily destroyed by common sterilization methods?
The first phase of the wound-healing process is the
In the first 24 hours of primary union wound healing, most of the resistance to opening of the wound is provided by
In what type of abdominal incision can the muscle wall be most effectively closed with one layer of sutures?
Scrubbed surgical personnel become contaminated if they touch
Objects outside of the sterile zone
Nonscrubbed personnel may properly touch anything that is
How should a person scrubbed for surgery and the anesthetist pass each other in the operating room?
Scrubbed person back to anesthetist back
When not otherwise occupied, scrubbed surgical personnel should stand with their
Hands clasped between waist and shoulder level
When is it permissible for nonscrubbed surgical personnel to pass between scrubbed personnel and the patient during surgery?
When aseptically opening a sterile surgical pack on an instrument stand, it is not proper for nonscrubbed surgical personnel to touch the
Contents of the pack
What characteristic is true of ethylene oxide gas? Flammable Exposure is not considered a health hazard Noncombustible Nontoxic to tissues
Which of the following is not a likely contributor to postoperative wound dehiscence? Chronic postoperative vomiting Internal suture ends cut too short Infection Skin sutures left in too long
Skin sutures left in too long
What type of dressing best helps debride a wound with extensive tissue damage?
Wet saline dressing
Most of the clinical signs seen in an animal in shock from excessive blood loss are attributable to
Redistrubution of blood flow
The main goal of surgery to remove a pus-filled uterus is
To restore the animal to health without restoring normal reproductive function
What tissue must form in a wound that is healing by second intention before wound contraction or epithelial regeneration can occur?
When gloving for surgery, which of the following is not permitted? One gloved thumb touches the other gloved thumb The outside of the glove is touched by the scrubbed finger The outside of the gown cuff is touched by inside of the glove cuff The scrubbed fingers touch the inside of the glove cuff
The outside of the glove is touched by the scrubbed finger
How should a pack be placed in an autoclave for sterilization?
Metzenbaum scissors are used for
What retractors are not handheld? Deaver Senn Rake Gelpi
What is the appropriate time to soak an instrument in a cold sterilization solution before adequate sterilization is achieved?
How long does an instrument that is sterilized and wrapped in paper remain sterile?
A dust cover extends the sterility time of an instrument from 1 month to
Instrument milk is used for all of the following except Lubrication Rust inhibition Extending the life of the instrument Cleaning the instrument
Cleaning the instrument
For what bovine surgical procedure are obstetric chains used?
To flash sterilize an instrument, the autoclave settings should be
270 degrees F, 30-lb pressure, 4 min, fast exhaust
Which of the following does not have to be gas sterilized? Arthroscope Plastic pipette tubing Polyethylene tubing Plastic spray bottles
Plastic pipette tubing
Ultrasonic cleaners are used for
Removing small particles of blood and tissue from instruments
A laryngeal burr is used in
Which of the following is not a consideration when evaluating a surgical pack for sterility? Sterilization date Indicator color change Holes or moisture damage Incorrect labeling
Mayo-hegar scissors are used in all of the following situations except for cutting Sutures Delicate tissue Paper drapes Skin or muscle
When steam autoclaving bottles of solution, what two preparations should be made to prevent explosion of the bottles?
Vent the bottles and set the autoclave to slow exhaust
How long must instruments be aerated after ethylene oxide gas sterilization before they can be used?
1 to 7 days
What scalpel blade is generally used in an arthroscopy for making the stab incision into the joint because of its pointed, rather than rounded or hooked end?
What size scalpel blade is used for making an abdominal skin incision?
What type of sterilization technique is not acceptable for instruments in a canine castration? Gas sterilization Autoclaving Chemical sterilization Boiling
All of the following are objectives of the surgical hand scrub except To remove gross dirt and oil from the hands To sterilize the hands To reduce the microorganism count on the hands to as close to zero as possible To have a prolonged depressant effect on numbers of microflora on the hands and forearms
To sterilize the hands
What type of surgical scrub solution is most effective in reducing numbers of bacteria on the skin?
When a surgeon encounters bleeding, all of the following can be used to control it except Electrocautery A hemostat Suction Rat-tooth forceps
How long does a sealed item remain sterilized after being sterilized by gamma radiation?
Until it is opened
What instrument would be considered sterile on August 19, 2012? The instrument wrapped in a double-layered muslin, with moisture on it, dated July 19, 2012 The instrument sterilized with blood still on it dated August 18, 2012 The instrument wrapped in a peel pouch dated August 20, 2011 The instrument wrapped in paper and a dust cover dated August 20,2011
The instrument wrapped in a peel pouch dated August 20, 2011
What retractor is not self-retaining? Weitlaner Alms Sauerbruch Balfour
Sterilization is the process of killing microorganisms by physical or chemical means. What is the most reliable form of sterilization?
Steam under pressure
Instruments wrapped in a single linen wrap can become contaminated with microbes within 2 to 3 days. How long does double wrapping an instrument extend the sterility period?
What is the best type of cleaner to use when hand washing surgical instruments?
Which of the following is an absorbable suture? Prolene Vicryl Mersilene Silk
All of the following are considered benefits of using skin staples except Skin is more resistant to abscess formation than when sutures are used Staples provide excellent wound healing Staples are more cost effective Staples save time
Staples are more cost effective
If skin edges are under extreme tension, what is the suture pattern of choice?
Interrupted horizontal mattress
What suture pattern is most commonly used in large-animal surgery?
What suture is not recommended for skin closure? Polydioxanone Nylon Chromic gut Stainless steel
What is the purpose of using a subcuticular suture pattern for final closure?
To eliminate small scars produced around suture holes of more common patterns
What suture pattern would not be used to close skin? Cushing Horizontal mattress Simple interrupted Ford interlocking
Which one of the following suture patterns is an inverting stitch? Cruciate Cushing Horizontal mattress Vertical mattress
In what way is a surgeon's knot different from a square knot?
A surgeon's knot has two throws on the first pass and one throw on the second pass; a square knot has one throw on each pass
Why is is better to ligate many small vessels rather than one mass ligation of tissues?
Mass ligation of tissue is more likely to fail
What is the purpose of transfixation ligature?
To prevent slippage of the suture
All of the following are good reasons for using an instrument tie except It is economical; small pieces of suture can be used, and therefore suture material is not wasted It saves time It is more accurate than a one- or two- handed tie It is readily adaptable to any type of closure
It is more accurate than a one- or two- handed tie
Which of the following is not a consideration when choosing a needle for use in a surgical procedure? Type of tissue to be sutured Location of the tissue to be sutured Size of suture material Strength of suture material
Strength of suture material
When suturing the skin, the needle of choice is
What is the most significant advantage of using a swaged-on needle as opposed to a closed-eye needle?
Tissue is subjected to less trauma, because a single strand is pulled through the tissue
Suture patterns can be classified into three types: appositional, inverting, and tension. What tissue is most appropriately sutured in an appositional pattern?
Which of these sequences correctly list suture material diameter, from largest to smallest? 3-0, 2-0, 0, 1, 2, 3 000, 00, 00, 1, 2, 3 3, 2, 1, 1-0, 2-0, 3-0 7-0, 5-0, 3-0, 1
3, 2, 1, 1-0, 2-0, 3-0
For suturing a uterine incision in a cow, the proper suture size is
Which one of the following is a disadvantage of multifilament suture material? Less knot security than monofilament suture material Tears tissue more easily than monofilament suture material Has a greater tendency for wicking bacteria than monofilament suture material Has less strength than monofilament suture material
Has a greater tendency for wicking bacteria than monofilament suture material
Which of the following is a monofilament suture material? Polyglactin 910 (Vicryl) Polyester (Mersilene) Polyethylene (Dermalene) Cotton
Which of the following has the poorest handling ease? Silk Braided polyglycolic acid Chromic catgut Monofilament stainless steel wire
Monofilament stainless steel wire
Characteristics of an ideal suture material include all of the following except Minimal tissue reaction Favorable for bacteria growth Comfortable to work with Economical to use
Favorable for bacteria growth
An example of an inverting suture pattern is the
After what time does synthetic absorbable suture lose its tensile strength?
What suture material is absorbed most rapidly form an infected wound through increased local phagocytic activity?
Which of the following is not a consideration in choosing suture material? The surgeon's training and experience The part of the body where it will be used The size of the animal on which it will be used The age of the animal on which it will be used
The age of the animal on which it will be used
In regard to wound healing, it is better to
Increase the number of sutures rather than the size of the suture material
Which of these statements concerning surgical catgut is false? It can be used for ligating superficial blood vessels It is recommended for epidermal use It is recommended for internal use It is fast absorbing
It is recommended for internal use
Chromic catgut is produced by exposure to basic chromium salts. How does this process affect it?
Increases intermolecular bonding
Memory is defined as a suture material's ability to resist bending forces and to return to its original configuration. This can cause what problem when suturing?
The suture is difficult to knot securely
Strike through refers to
Wicking of bacteria through a surgical drape that has become wet, allowing bacteria to contaminate the sterile area
Perioperative antibiotics are
Indicated in surgical procedures longer than 5 hours
What type of instrument is an Adson?
What is the primary function of a Balfour?
What is the primary function of a Lempert?
What is the primary function of a Brown-Adson?
Chlorhaxedine gluconate surgical scrub is
Effective against Pseudomonas species
A gauze sponge that is being used for the surgical scrub inadvertently touches the patient's hair. It
Should be thrown out and replaced with a new sponge
Surgical scrubs are applied to the surgically prepared site in
A target fashion, starting with the incision site and spiraling outward to the edge of the clipped area
Why is an anal purse-string suture placed before perianal surgery?
To prevent fecal contamination during surgery
In male dog, the prepuce is
Flushed with a weak providone-iodine and saline solution before an abdominal surgery
What structure is commonly emptied before abdominal surgery?
What type of instrument is a Metzenbaum?
What type of instrument is a Mayo-hegar?
What type of instrument is a Kelly?
What type of instrument is a Backhaus?
The most effective use for a rongeur is to
Remove small pieces of bone
Talking in the surgery room should be kept to a minimum to
Prevent unnecessary injection of bacteria into the operating theater
An instrument suitable for cutting a paper drape is a/an
What instrument is not a self-retaining tissue retractor? Finchietto Army-Navy Balfour Gelpi
A surgical scrub with residual antibacterial activity is important because
Bacteria below the superficial dermal area are constantly rising to the surface
The most effective sterilizing method for an object that could be damaged by heat is
What term best describes freedom from infection as it applies to surgical technique?
What surgical materials are sterilized by filtration? Nutrient solutions Irrigation solutions Surgical solutions Pharmaceutical solutions
What piece of equipment delivers saturated steam under pressure?
A safeguard to ensure that a pack is sterilized adequately
Is a sterilization indicator strip
An autoclave must
Not be overloaded because this decreases its effectiveness
Electrocautery Is an effective way to sterilize skin Is used to coagulate blood flow from a cut vessel Cannot be used for most surgical procedures Is atraumatic and can be used liberally
Is used to coagulate blood flow from a cut vessel
After donning sterile latex surgical gloves and before beginning the procedure, powder is wiped from the gloves with a wet sponge to
Prevent postoperative starch granulomas in the patient's tissues
The main goal of aseptic surgical technique is to prevent contamination of the
When preparing a cat for a routine spay, administration of antibiotics prior to surgery Should be given is your employer does not wear a cap or mask Is not indicated for short, uncomplicated procedures Should always be given as a precaution to prevent infection Is never useful in conjunction with surgery
Is not indicated for short, uncomplicated procedures
The main function of bactericidal disinfectants is to
Keeping the environment clean throughout your clinic is
Mandatory to prevent cross-contamination into the surgery area
The type of disinfectant used in your clinic should
Be chosen for its broad spectrum of bacteristatic or bactericidal
The sterile field in the surgery room consists of
The draped field and instrument table
The surgical nurse circulating for the scrubbed-in surgeons
Must constantly be concerned with maintaining aseptic technique
Assuming that good aseptic technique is being followed, the most common source of contamination in a surgical wound is
The patient's skin or internal organs
The clothing worn in the surgical room
Should be a scrub suit dedicated to surgery only
Surgical masks Prevent unpleasant odors from reaching the surgeon's nose Lose their effectiveness when saturated with moisture Are used for orthopedic procedures only Can be tied loosely so that they are not as confining
Lose their effectiveness when saturated with moisture
When folding surgical gowns for sterilization
Place the inside of the shoulder seams on top and fold all outer areas of the gown to the inside
During surgery, the back outside aspect of a surgeon's gown should be considered
If a gowned and gloved person at the surgery table is not participating in the surgery at some point
His or her hands should be folded at chest level or placed on the instrument table
An anatomic scrub
Refers to scrubbing the arms and hands in a methodical, consistent manner
A timed scrub should last at least
The preferred method for gloving is
When scrubbing for a surgical procedure, the position of the arms
Should always be with the hands higher than the elbows
Iodophors, such as povidone-iodine scrub Are the ideal surgical preparation Have been replaced by newer, more effective scrubbing agents Are effective when used with alcohol only Are bactericidal against all common contaminants
Have been replaced by newer, more effective scrubbing agents
The number of personnel in the operating theater
Should be kept to a minimum to keep air borne bacteria levels low
Cleaning instruments before sterilization
Must be performed carefully by hand
Ethyl and isopropyl alcohols Have characteristics that make them ideal for sterilizing instruments At lower concentrations are bacteristatic rather than bactericidal Have an excellent residual effect because of their rapid evaporation Have no place in veterinary surgery
At lower concentrations are bacteristatic rather than bactericidal
An effective disinfectant to clean a cage after an animal that has had a Pseudomonas contaminated wound would is
A good solution to instill in the conjuntival sac before surgery is
1:25 providone-iodine solution
Clean-contaminated surgery refers to
Incisions made in contaminated areas
In terms of surgical contamination, endogenous organisms are those that
Originate from the patient's own body
When a break in aseptic technique occurs,
Steps must be taken to immediately remedy the situation to the best of everyone's ability
A good time to clean the surgery room is
On the night before surgery to allow air borne dust to settle before surgery
If during surgery you notice an items close to the edge of the sterile field, you should
Consider it unsterile if you are not absolutely certain
Preparing the patient's skin for surgery
Reduces the bacterial flora to a level that can be controlled by the patient's defense mechanisms
Lavaging a body cavity with warm, sterile saline after a surgical procedure is completed and before closing the incision
Decreases the amount of bacteria left behind and warms the patient
An example of an elective procedure is
A tapered needle is
The least traumatic and most often used in deep tissue layers
A thoracotomy is an incision into the
The suffix -ectomy refers to
Which orthopedic fixation consists of pins that penetrate fractured bones and are held in place externally by bolts?
The term arthrotomy refers to an incison into a/an
Arresting the flow of blood from a vessel or to a part is called
Peritonitis refers to
Inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity
Cryptorchidectomy is performed on male dogs when
One or both testicles have not descended into the scrotal sac
Fenestration refers to
Creating a window in tissue
Ovariohysterectomy is routinely performed
In young female dogs that the owners wish rendered sterile
Hepatic refers to
Blood vessels are ligated when
Blood flow needs to be stopped
Chemical cauterization is
Traumatic to adjacent tissues and therefore is not used in surgical cases
Keeping tissues moist during a surgical procedure
Is important because dry tissues are less resistant to bacterial infection
Plating a fractured bone is
An internal method of fracture fixation involving stainless steel plates and screws
The distal portion of the long bone is
The one farthest away form the trunk of the body
Perineal urethrostomies are performed only on
Male cats with urethral obstruction
Torsion of an organ or part refers to
Twisting or rotation
What surgical procedure is least likely to combat canine hip dysplasia's debilitating complications? Triple pelvic osteotomy Total hip replacement Intramedullary pinning Pectineal myotomy
Ear canal ablation refers to
Surgical removal and closure of the external ear canal
Perioperatively refers to
Around the time of surgery
A proptosed eye is one that is
Displaced rostrally from the socket
Is the procedure used to remove a cat's claws and associated phalanges
Postoperative complications Do not occur if the surgeon is skilled Should never be discussed with a client Can occur even if the surgery went well Are almost always attributable to poor assistance in surgery
Can occur even if the surgery went well
Fracture reduction involves
Apposing the fractured bone ends
A diaphragmatic hernia Is a diaphragm that is in continuous spasm Is displacement of the heart and part of the lungs into the abdomen Cannot be corrected and is considered fatal Should be suspected if the animal is dyspneic following a traumatic experience
Should be suspected if the animal is dyspneic following a traumatic experience
When an animal is sent home after surgery
The client should be given written detailed home care instructions
Absorbable gelatin sponges
Are typically soaked or sutured into a bleeding
Exteriorizing a body part or organ during surgery
Is a routine practice when the part or organ contains contaminants