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Four classes of large biological molecules-macromolecules
monomer is sugar or monosaccharide's glucose or fructose, polymer is glycogen, starch, cellulose, chitin, polysaccharide-
monomer is fatty acid or glycogen, polymer is fat (3 fatty acids + glycogen)or phosolipid (2 fatty acids, glycerol, and phosphate)
Cells link monomers together in a dehydration reaction, which removes a molecule of water.
- Each kind of protein has a unique 3D shape- shape determines function
- Proteins are enzymes.
Types of Proteins
- Structural proteins are found in hair and also make up connective tissues like tendons and ligaments
- Contractile proteins are found in muscles
- Receptor proteins transmit signals to the nucleus, from cell membranes.
- Defensive proteins include antibodies,
- Signal proteins communicate between cells.
- Transport protein move sugar and O2 to cells
- Storage proteins hold amino acids and stuff.
dipeptide vs polypeptide
- If it contains 2 amino acids, it's a dipeptide. Any more make it a polypeptide.
non-protein chemical compound that is bound to a protein and is required for the protein's biological activity
reaction with the inhibitor causes the shape of the active site to change. Remember that non-competitive inhibitors aren't attaching directly to the active site, but elsewhere on the enzyme.
Cow can digest cellulose which is in the plant cell wall because they are ruminants and have enzymes for that
Lipids are formed when
When a glycerol molecule combines with compounds called fatty acids
Nucleic acids contain what kind of atoms
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
-stores genetic info
how to cells regulate enzyme activity
contain proteins that help turn key enzymes "on" or "off" at critical stages in the life of the cell
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