- The chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule
- polar - Ends with OH. OH is alcohol
-NH2. - In the body it works as a base
-CO -Carbon DOUBLE bonded to oxygen -Acid
- CH3 - Hydrocarbon - Nonpolar
-A phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms - important in energy transfer.
- Compounds with the same formula but different structures
Four classes of large biological molecules-macromolecules
-CARBOHYDRATES -LIPIDS -PROTEINS -NUCLEIC ACIDS.
small molecules joined into chains to make big molecules
made of polymers
monomer is amino acid, polymer is protein or polypeptide
Nucleic acids (P/M)
monomer is nucleotide (sugar, base, phosphate), polymer is DNA or RNA
monomer is sugar or monosaccharide's glucose or fructose, polymer is glycogen, starch, cellulose, chitin, polysaccharide-
monomer is fatty acid or glycogen, polymer is fat (3 fatty acids + glycogen)or phosolipid (2 fatty acids, glycerol, and phosphate)
Cells link monomers together in a dehydration reaction, which removes a molecule of water.
adding water- breaks polymers. Both require the help of enzymes
specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells.
- Each kind of protein has a unique 3D shape- shape determines function - Proteins are enzymes.
Types of Proteins
- Structural proteins are found in hair and also make up connective tissues like tendons and ligaments - Contractile proteins are found in muscles - Receptor proteins transmit signals to the nucleus, from cell membranes. - Defensive proteins include antibodies, - Signal proteins communicate between cells. - Transport protein move sugar and O2 to cells - Storage proteins hold amino acids and stuff.
amino group and a carboxyl group
Hydrophobic amino acids
Dont like water
The covalent bond formed through the dehydration process
dipeptide vs polypeptide
- If it contains 2 amino acids, it's a dipeptide. Any more make it a polypeptide.
- All of the chemical reactions in your body
metabolic pathways that synthesize molecules. They require energy input
- metabolic pathways that breakdown molecules and release energy.
non-protein chemical compound that is bound to a protein and is required for the protein's biological activity
reaction with the inhibitor causes the shape of the active site to change. Remember that non-competitive inhibitors aren't attaching directly to the active site, but elsewhere on the enzyme.
Process by which macromolecules are formed
What atoms make carbohydrates
Carbon, Hydrogen, oxygen -main source of energy- structural purposes
Single sugar molecules -galactOSE, glucOSE, frucTOSE
Large macromolecules formed from mono saccharides
Cow can digest cellulose which is in the plant cell wall because they are ruminants and have enzymes for that
3 Common lipids
Fats Oils Waxes
Lipids are formed when
When a glycerol molecule combines with compounds called fatty acids -store energy
Each carbon atom in the chain is joined to another carbon atom by a single bond
There is at least on carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid
a lipids fatty acids contain more than one double bond
Nucleic acids contain what kind of atoms
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus -stores genetic info
Monomers that make up nucleic acid
Nucleotides consist of
nitrogenous base, phosphate group, and a 5 carbon sugar
Chemical reactions always involves changes in
a chemical bond
what is released or absorbed when chem bonds are formed or broken
what do chemical reactions that absorb energy need to occur
source of energy
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
proteins that act as biological catalysts
what is needed to get the reaction started
reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions
the binding of and enzyme and a substrate
how to cells regulate enzyme activity
contain proteins that help turn key enzymes "on" or "off" at critical stages in the life of the cell
Amino acid sequence determines 3d shape
Primary (1) Structure
Amino acid sequence in a specific order- made by DNA instructions
Secondary (2) Structure
Local areas in the chain that are folded
Tertiary Structure (3)
The whole chain folds up to a 3D shape with a groove to fit a substrate
Quaternary Structure (4)
Only proteins composed of more than one polypeptide
two monomers forming a bond while losing a water molecule