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Organic compounds and such

organic compounds

- Carbon based molecules


- Compounds composed only of carbon and hydrogen

carbon skeleton

- The chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule

Hydroxyl group

- polar
- Ends with OH. OH is alcohol

Amino group

- In the body it works as a base

Carboxyl group.

-Carbon DOUBLE bonded to oxygen

Methyl group

- CH3
- Hydrocarbon
- Nonpolar

Phosphate group

-A phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms
- important in energy transfer.


- Compounds with the same formula but different structures

Four classes of large biological molecules-macromolecules



small molecules joined into chains to make big molecules


made of polymers

Proteins (P/M)

monomer is amino acid, polymer is protein or polypeptide

Nucleic acids (P/M)

monomer is nucleotide (sugar, base, phosphate), polymer is DNA or RNA

Carbohydrates (P/M)

monomer is sugar or monosaccharide's glucose or fructose, polymer is glycogen, starch, cellulose, chitin, polysaccharide-

Lipids (P/M)

monomer is fatty acid or glycogen, polymer is fat (3 fatty acids + glycogen)or phosolipid (2 fatty acids, glycerol, and phosphate)

dehydration reaction

Cells link monomers together in a dehydration reaction, which removes a molecule of water.


adding water- breaks polymers. Both require the help of enzymes

Enzymes are

specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells.


- Each kind of protein has a unique 3D shape- shape determines function
- Proteins are enzymes.

Types of Proteins

- Structural proteins are found in hair and also make up connective tissues like tendons and ligaments
- Contractile proteins are found in muscles
- Receptor proteins transmit signals to the nucleus, from cell membranes.
- Defensive proteins include antibodies,
- Signal proteins communicate between cells.
- Transport protein move sugar and O2 to cells
- Storage proteins hold amino acids and stuff.

Proteins contain

amino group and a carboxyl group

Hydrophobic amino acids

Dont like water

peptide bond

The covalent bond formed through the dehydration process

dipeptide vs polypeptide

- If it contains 2 amino acids, it's a dipeptide. Any more make it a polypeptide.


- All of the chemical reactions in your body


metabolic pathways that synthesize molecules. They require energy input


- metabolic pathways that breakdown molecules and release energy.


non-protein chemical compound that is bound to a protein and is required for the protein's biological activity

Competitive inhibitors

inhibits competitivley.

non-competitive inhibitors

reaction with the inhibitor causes the shape of the active site to change. Remember that non-competitive inhibitors aren't attaching directly to the active site, but elsewhere on the enzyme.


Process by which macromolecules are formed

What atoms make carbohydrates

Carbon, Hydrogen, oxygen
-main source of energy- structural purposes


Single sugar molecules
-galactOSE, glucOSE, frucTOSE


Large macromolecules formed from mono saccharides


Cow can digest cellulose which is in the plant cell wall because they are ruminants and have enzymes for that

3 Common lipids


Lipids are formed when

When a glycerol molecule combines with compounds called fatty acids
-store energy

Saturated Lipid

Each carbon atom in the chain is joined to another carbon atom by a single bond

Unsaturated Lipid

There is at least on carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid


a lipids fatty acids contain more than one double bond

Nucleic acids contain what kind of atoms

hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
-stores genetic info


Monomers that make up nucleic acid

Nucleotides consist of

nitrogenous base, phosphate group, and a 5 carbon sugar

Chemical reactions always involves changes in

a chemical bond

what is released or absorbed when chem bonds are formed or broken


what do chemical reactions that absorb energy need to occur

source of energy


substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction


proteins that act as biological catalysts

activation energy

what is needed to get the reaction started


reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions

the binding of and enzyme and a substrate

enzyme-substrate complex

how to cells regulate enzyme activity

contain proteins that help turn key enzymes "on" or "off" at critical stages in the life of the cell

Protein folding

Amino acid sequence determines 3d shape

Primary (1) Structure

Amino acid sequence in a specific order- made by DNA instructions

Secondary (2) Structure

Local areas in the chain that are folded

Tertiary Structure (3)

The whole chain folds up to a 3D shape with a groove to fit a substrate

Quaternary Structure (4)

Only proteins composed of more than one polypeptide

dehydration synthesis

two monomers forming a bond while losing a water molecule


split with water polymer

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