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Terms in this set (30)
Why was the mood grim in Germany in the 1930s?
Due to the worldwide economic depression and that millions of people were unemployed
What rights did individuals lose in Germany under the Nazis? Why?
They lost their rights of freedom and privacy
What are the SS? What did they do to people who opposed the Nazis?
They are the Nazi protective squad, the secret police. They killed anyone who opposed the Nazi party
What did the Gestapo do?
They used cruel methods to identify and arrest people who disobeyed laws and policies of the Nazis
What did the Nazis do to any viewpoint they felt threatened by?
They were censored or eliminated from all media
What was the "Germanic Race" called? What did the ideal person look like?
The Aryan, master race. They were blonde haired, blue-eyed, and tall.
Explain the euthanasia program. Who were its targets? How many people died?
The killing of mentally or physically incurably ill people. Its targets were those who were seen as useless to the Nazis. About 200,000 people died.
What was Germany planning to do with the territories they conquered in the East?
Annex and colonize them.
How were people in Poland and other Eastern European countries treated compared to those in "Germanic" countries? Why?
Treated harshly; seen as a supply of forced laborers
How many Jews lived in areas that would be occupied by Germany during WWII? What % of the Jewish population would be dead in these occupied countries by the end of the war?
9,000,000 Jews lived in the countries. By the end of the war 2 out of 3 Jews would be dead.
What is Antisemitism? What problems have Jews been blamed for throughout history?
Prejudice and discrimination; Jews have been blamed for causing Jesus' death.
Explain some of the key events and what happened during the Night of Broken Glass.
November 9, 1938; violence against Jews broke out, 250 synagogues were burned, over 7,000 Jewish businesses were trashed and looted, dozens of Jewish people were killed, and Jewish cemeteries, hospitals, schools, and homes were looted while police stood by.
What happened to Jewish children after the Night of Broken Glass?
They were segregated in Germany; they were expelled from school
Why did America not let Jewish refugees into the United States during the 1930s?
The Great Depression; competition for jobs; tension between Jewish refugees and the U.S.
What was the "Final Solution"?
The Nazis plan to exterminate all Jewish people
List the 6 extermination camps. About how many Jewish people died in the Holocaust?
Chelmno, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, Auschwitz-Birkenau, and Majdanek. About 6,000,000 Jews died.
What were the Ghettos used for?
Jews were forced to reside in marked-off sections of towns and cities to control the population
What was life like for adults in the Ghettos?
Some had valuables for trade; others begged or stole to survive; heat was scarce in the winter and many lacked proper clothing; disease; hunger; many died of illness, starvation, or cold. Many committed suicide to escape
What was life like for children in the Ghettos? What did they do?
Children became orphaned; took care of younger children; froze to death in the winter; some made and played with toys to keep hope
What types of people were usually the first to die at a concentration camp?
Babies, young children, pregnant women, the elderly, handicapped, and the sick.
Explain the importance of Auschwitz to the Nazis. How many people died at Auschwitz?
The largest camp in Germany; extermination through work; over 1,000,000 people died here, 9 out of 10 were Jewish
What types of experiments did Dr. Josef Mengele perform on people? Who were his typical victims?
Experimented om dwarfs, young children, and twins; some were used to find medical treatments for German soldiers; other were aimed at sterilizing people that were considered inferior; many died during experiments or were murdered afterward, and their organs were donated to further research
What other groups of people besides Jews were victims of the Nazi concentration camp system?
Political prisoners, such as Communists, Socialists, and trade unionists; Gypsies; Jehovah's Witnesses; homosexuals; Polish , Soviet Union, and French people
Why did the death marches happen?
Allied forces were coming close to the camps for liberation so the Nazis frantically moved prisoners to other camps
What happened to half of the survivors of Auschwitz within a few days of being freed?
Nourishment was provided for the survivors but many died due to the extensive malnourishment
How were Jewish survivors of the Holocaust treated after WWII, especially in Poland?
anti-Jewish riots broke out; rumors spread and many Jews could not return to their homes because people were living in them
What country was created in 1948? Why?
Israel, the Jews needed a place to stay
What were the Nuremberg trials? What was their point?
The trials of the Nazi people involved in the Holocaust
Explain what happened during the Warsaw Ghetto uprising.
750 fighters fought against the heavily armed, well-trained Germans.
What were the jobs of the Sonderkommando?
The Jewish prisoners who had the job of burning the corpses of the murdered victims.
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