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3 connective tissue membranes of the spinal cord.

The three Meninges...

Dura mater, arachnoid mater, Pia mater.

Cerebrospinal fluid is usually found...

within the central canal of the spinal cord.

Leathery, strong, outermost connective tissue (meninge) of the spinal cord

Dura mater

Middle meninge that forms a loose covering

Arachnoid mater

The deep meninge composed of delicate connective tissue that clings tight to spinal cord and brain

Pia mater

Epidural space

Between the vertebra and Dura mater

Subdural space

Between the Dura and Arachnoid mater

Sub-arachnoid space

Between the Arachnoid and Pia mater and contains cerbrospinal fluid.

Cornus Medullaris

Terminal portion of the spinal cord...

Cauda Equina

Collection of nerve roots at the inferior end of the vertebra. "Horses tail" where nerves spread out.

Filium Terminale

Anchors spinal cord to coccyx

Denticulate ligaments

Attach the spinal cord laterally to the vertebra. Spinal cord is suspended in the middle of the Dural Sheath.

Cerebrospinal fluid usually circulates in the...

Subarachnoid space

Dorsal Root Ganglion

Where the sensory nerve bodies of sensory neurons are located...

In an adult, the spinal cord extends from the medulla too the...

Upper border of vertebra L2

When a spinal cord is mixed that means...

it contains both afferent and efferent nerves.

The part of the spine that never contains only efferent fibers is the...

ventral root.

Connective tissue surrounding each individual axon...


Ascending tracts contain...

Sensory neurons.

Spinothalamic tract conveys...

senses regarding temperature.

Corticospanial tract

Voluntary skeletal muscle movements are stimulated by...

Cell bodies of motor neurons to skeletal muscles are located....

Anterior gray horns.


A rapid, predictable motor response to a stimulus.

Somatic reflexes

to skeletal muscles

Autonomic reflexes

to smooth and cardiac muscles.

The reflex arc in order (5)

Receptor, Sensory Neuron, Integrating center, Motor neuron, Effector.

Stretch reflex

Stretching the muscle activates a muscle spindle, allowing the spindle to cause a reflex to signal stretched muscle to contract.

Tendon reflex

Golgi tendon is here. Telling the agnostic muscle to not contract too forcibly.

Flexor reflex

Brought on by a painful stimulus.


A cord like organ of the PNS consisting of peripheral axons enclosed by connective tissue.

Sensory AFFERENT nerves

Carry impulses TOO the CNS

Motor EFFERENT nerves

Carry impulses FROM the CNS


Tough fiberous sheath around entire nerve


Bundles fibers of nerves into fasicals.


Nerve cell bodies outside of the CNS.

Cervical Spinal nerves; How many? Name?

8 cervical. C1-C8.

Thoracic spinal nerves; How many? Name?

12 thorasic. T1-T12.

Lumbar spinal nerves; How many? Name?

5 Lumbar. L1-L5.

Sacral spinal nerves; How many? Name?

5 Sacral. S1-S5

Coccygeal spinal nerves; How many? Name?

1 Coccygeal. C0.

Name the 5 Plexus'

Nerve, cervical, brachial, lumbar, and sacral.


Area of skin innervated by the cutaneous branches of a single spinal nerve. (Pricking body parts for paralysis test).


Thinking part of the brain

Diencephalon contains...

Contains the epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalmus.


The "Core" of the brain.


Connected to the Pineal gland which secreates Melatonin for sleeping.

Brain stem contains...

Midbrain, pons, and Medulla Oblongata.

Brain Stem

Provides association between the brain and spinal cord.

Medulla oblongota

Most inferior part of the brain stem. From the ventral wall of the fourth ventrical along with the Pons.

Decussation of Pyramids

Cross over points of the corticospinal tracts. Where right side of brain controls the left side of body and vice-versa.


The buldging brainstem region between the midbrain and the Medulla Oblongota. Send signals <-- --> and up and down.


Right on top of the brain stem. Located between the diencephalon and the pons. Contain the superior and inferior colliculi (boobies).

Superior Colliculi

Visual reflex center

Inferior Colliculi

Auditory reflex center

Cerebral Peduncles

Two bulging structures that contain descending motor tracts.


Provides precise timing and appropriate patterns of skeletal muscle contraction for coordination and balance. Keeps you moving after movement has been made.Contains the Vermis and Arbor Vitae.


"worm" looking structure that connects both sides

Arbor Vitae

Tree-like pattern of white matter.

Blood-brain barrier

Protective mechanism that helps maintain a stable environment for the brain.

The 2 layeres of the Dura mater of the brain are...

Periosteal & Meningeal.

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)

Cushions CNS organs and nourishes the brain. Formed by the choroid Plexus.

Cardiovascular Control Center

Adjusts rate of heart contraction

Respiratory Centers

Control rate and depth of breathing.


Where AFFERENT impulses converge and synapse.


Responsible for homeostasis of the Autonomic nervous system. The gland of all glands. Produces hormones to support or shut off other glands as it wants.

The 4 F's of the Hypothalmus

Flight, fright, food, fornication.

Cerebrums 5 lobes....

Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal, Insula.

Cerebral Cortex

Works in consciousness, integration, understanding, communication, memory, and voluntary movements. Where Brocas Speech and Wernickes area.

Brocas area

Motor for speech

Wernickes area

Interprets meanings of words.

Basal Ganglia

Masses of gray matter found deep within the Cerebral white matter. Contains the Thalamus, Putamen, and Caudate Nucleus.


Each hemisphere has abilities not shared with its partner.

Left Hemisphere

Controls language, math, and logic.

Right Hemisphere

Controls visual-spatial skills, artistic skills.

Limbic System

Emotions and "feelings"


Long-term memory

Reticular Formation

Contains the Reticular Activating System (RAS) which sends impulses to the cerebral cortex to keep it conscious, aroused and alert when awake. Makes you aware of your surroundings for protection.

Alpha brain waves

Low amplitude, "Idling brain". Awake, but not fully there.

Beta brain waves

Higher frequency waves when mentally alert. Thinking.

Theta brain waves

Higher amplitude, but lower frequency waves; seen in SLEEP.

Delta brain waves

Highest amplitude, but lowest frequency waves; seen in DEEP SLEEP.

Olfactory cranial nerve

Sensory function

Optic cranial nerve

Sensory function

Vagus cranial nerve

Both sensory and function.

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