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Brain & Spinal cord

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Meninges
3 connective tissue membranes of the spinal cord.
The three Meninges...
Dura mater, arachnoid mater, Pia mater.
Cerebrospinal fluid is usually found...
within the central canal of the spinal cord.
Leathery, strong, outermost connective tissue (meninge) of the spinal cord
Dura mater
Middle meninge that forms a loose covering
Arachnoid mater
The deep meninge composed of delicate connective tissue that clings tight to spinal cord and brain
Pia mater
Epidural space
Between the vertebra and Dura mater
Subdural space
Between the Dura and Arachnoid mater
Sub-arachnoid space
Between the Arachnoid and Pia mater and contains cerbrospinal fluid.
Cornus Medullaris
Terminal portion of the spinal cord...
Cauda Equina
Collection of nerve roots at the inferior end of the vertebra. "Horses tail" where nerves spread out.
Filium Terminale
Anchors spinal cord to coccyx
Denticulate ligaments
Attach the spinal cord laterally to the vertebra. Spinal cord is suspended in the middle of the Dural Sheath.
Cerebrospinal fluid usually circulates in the...
Subarachnoid space
Dorsal Root Ganglion
Where the sensory nerve bodies of sensory neurons are located...
In an adult, the spinal cord extends from the medulla too the...
Upper border of vertebra L2
When a spinal cord is mixed that means...
it contains both afferent and efferent nerves.
The part of the spine that never contains only efferent fibers is the...
ventral root.
Connective tissue surrounding each individual axon...
Endoneurium
Ascending tracts contain...
Sensory neurons.
Spinothalamic tract conveys...
senses regarding temperature.
Corticospanial tract
Voluntary skeletal muscle movements are stimulated by...
Cell bodies of motor neurons to skeletal muscles are located....
Anterior gray horns.
Reflex
A rapid, predictable motor response to a stimulus.
Somatic reflexes
to skeletal muscles
Autonomic reflexes
to smooth and cardiac muscles.
The reflex arc in order (5)
Receptor, Sensory Neuron, Integrating center, Motor neuron, Effector.
Stretch reflex
Stretching the muscle activates a muscle spindle, allowing the spindle to cause a reflex to signal stretched muscle to contract.
Tendon reflex
Golgi tendon is here. Telling the agnostic muscle to not contract too forcibly.
Flexor reflex
Brought on by a painful stimulus.
Nerve
A cord like organ of the PNS consisting of peripheral axons enclosed by connective tissue.
Sensory AFFERENT nerves
Carry impulses TOO the CNS
Motor EFFERENT nerves
Carry impulses FROM the CNS
Epineurium
Tough fiberous sheath around entire nerve
Perineurium
Bundles fibers of nerves into fasicals.
Ganglia
Nerve cell bodies outside of the CNS.
Cervical Spinal nerves; How many? Name?
8 cervical. C1-C8.
Thoracic spinal nerves; How many? Name?
12 thorasic. T1-T12.
Lumbar spinal nerves; How many? Name?
5 Lumbar. L1-L5.
Sacral spinal nerves; How many? Name?
5 Sacral. S1-S5
Coccygeal spinal nerves; How many? Name?
1 Coccygeal. C0.
Name the 5 Plexus'
Nerve, cervical, brachial, lumbar, and sacral.
Dermatomes
Area of skin innervated by the cutaneous branches of a single spinal nerve. (Pricking body parts for paralysis test).
Cerebrum
Thinking part of the brain
Diencephalon contains...
Contains the epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalmus.
Diencephalon
The "Core" of the brain.
Epithalamus
Connected to the Pineal gland which secreates Melatonin for sleeping.
Brain stem contains...
Midbrain, pons, and Medulla Oblongata.
Brain Stem
Provides association between the brain and spinal cord.
Medulla oblongota
Most inferior part of the brain stem. From the ventral wall of the fourth ventrical along with the Pons.
Decussation of Pyramids
Cross over points of the corticospinal tracts. Where right side of brain controls the left side of body and vice-versa.
Pons
The buldging brainstem region between the midbrain and the Medulla Oblongota. Send signals <-- --> and up and down.
Midbrain
Right on top of the brain stem. Located between the diencephalon and the pons. Contain the superior and inferior colliculi (boobies).
Superior Colliculi
Visual reflex center
Inferior Colliculi
Auditory reflex center
Cerebral Peduncles
Two bulging structures that contain descending motor tracts.
Cerebellum
Provides precise timing and appropriate patterns of skeletal muscle contraction for coordination and balance. Keeps you moving after movement has been made.Contains the Vermis and Arbor Vitae.
Vermis
"worm" looking structure that connects both sides
Arbor Vitae
Tree-like pattern of white matter.
Blood-brain barrier
Protective mechanism that helps maintain a stable environment for the brain.
The 2 layeres of the Dura mater of the brain are...
Periosteal & Meningeal.
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
Cushions CNS organs and nourishes the brain. Formed by the choroid Plexus.
Cardiovascular Control Center
Adjusts rate of heart contraction
Respiratory Centers
Control rate and depth of breathing.
Thalamus
Where AFFERENT impulses converge and synapse.
Hypothalamus
Responsible for homeostasis of the Autonomic nervous system. The gland of all glands. Produces hormones to support or shut off other glands as it wants.
The 4 F's of the Hypothalmus
Flight, fright, food, fornication.
Cerebrums 5 lobes....
Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal, Insula.
Cerebral Cortex
Works in consciousness, integration, understanding, communication, memory, and voluntary movements. Where Brocas Speech and Wernickes area.
Brocas area
Motor for speech
Wernickes area
Interprets meanings of words.
Basal Ganglia
Masses of gray matter found deep within the Cerebral white matter. Contains the Thalamus, Putamen, and Caudate Nucleus.
Lateralization
Each hemisphere has abilities not shared with its partner.
Left Hemisphere
Controls language, math, and logic.
Right Hemisphere
Controls visual-spatial skills, artistic skills.
Limbic System
Emotions and "feelings"
Hippocamous
Long-term memory
Reticular Formation
Contains the Reticular Activating System (RAS) which sends impulses to the cerebral cortex to keep it conscious, aroused and alert when awake. Makes you aware of your surroundings for protection.
Alpha brain waves
Low amplitude, "Idling brain". Awake, but not fully there.
Beta brain waves
Higher frequency waves when mentally alert. Thinking.
Theta brain waves
Higher amplitude, but lower frequency waves; seen in SLEEP.
Delta brain waves
Highest amplitude, but lowest frequency waves; seen in DEEP SLEEP.
Olfactory cranial nerve
Sensory function
Optic cranial nerve
Sensory function
Vagus cranial nerve
Both sensory and function.