The peritoneal cavity
like the plural & pericardial cavitiesis a potential space containing serous fluid.
Obstruction of the hepatopancreatic sphincter impairs digestion by reducing the avilability of
pancreatic juice and bile.
List the four layers (from innermost to outermost) of the gastrointestinal tract.
Mucosa, submucosae, muscularis externa, and serosa
Hormones of the GI system are produced and secreted by which of the following cells?
The circular folds found in the small intestine that increase surface area for absorption are called:
Which organ of the GI system absorbs water and electrolytes and contains bacteria that produce some vitamins?
Which physiologic sphincter prevents reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus?
Lower esophageal (gastroesophageal)
During which phase in the control of the digestive system would the sight and smell of food initiate reflexes to aid digestion?
Considered the third division of the ANS, this nervous system is unique to the digestive system.
In general, stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system would __________ digestive activity.
Intrinsic reflexes, where a stimulus in one part of the GI tract produces an effect in another part of the GI tract, are known as:
Responses generated in the CNS that travel to the gut via extrinsic nerves are called:
Norepinephrine is the neurotransmitter at which of the following synapses?
Sympathetic postganglionic synapse
Enteric neurons that are excitatory to smooth muscle release which of the following neurotransmitters?
ACh and substance P
During the cephalic phase of control, will nerves or hormones mediate the response in the stomach?
During the gastric phase of control, distention in the stomach will elicit a response using which of the following mechanisms?
Both nerves and hormones
The presence of fat in the small intestine causes intestinal cells to release the hormone __________, which slows gastric emptying.
During the gastric phase of GI tract control, which of the following hormones increases activity in the ileum and relaxes the ileocecal sphincter?
During a meal, which type of motility propels the feces into the rectum for evacuation?
Which division of the autonomic nervous system causes production of large amounts of watery saliva containing enzymes?
During the cephalic phase, long neural reflexes directly increase secretion of HCL and pepsinogen by stimulating which types of stomach cells?
Chief cells and parietal cells
When CCK acts on the pancreas, which cells does it stimulate (to produce an enzyme-rich solution from the pancreas)?
The primary secretion of the large intestine is __________, which functions in protection and lubrication.
bicarbonate and potassium
Transcellular transport of water in the small intestine depends on the active transport of what ion?
Unlike short- and medium-chain fatty acids, triglycerides (packaged as chylomicrons within the cell) enter what vessel after exiting the intestinal cell?
Resident bacteria in the large intestine synthesize this vitamin, which is necessary for the synthesis of some clotting proteins in the liver.