Chapter 17 Biology of Microorganisms
Terms in this set (57)
The hypothesis that mitochondria and chloroplasts arose when bacteria established an endosymbiotic relationship with ancestral cells and then evolved into organelles
G + C content
The percent of an organism's genome that consists of guanine and cytosine (G + C); a parameter that is used in taxonomic analysis.
The use of genetic data to construct a classification scheme for the identification of an unknown species or the phylogeny of a group of microbes
Melting temperature (Tm)
The temperature at which double-stranded DNA becomes single stranded; determined by the G + C content of the genome
A classification system that arranges organisms into groups whose members share many characteristics
Oligonucleotide signature sequences
Short, conserved nucleotide sequences that are specific for a phylogenetically defined group of organisms
A classification system that groups organisms together based on the similarity of their observable characteristics
Phylogenetic or phyletic classification systems
A classification system based on evolutionary relationships rather than the general similarity of characteristics
A graph made of nodes and branches, much like a tree in shape, that shows phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms.
An approach in which taxonomic schemes are developed using a wide range of phenotypic and genotrypic information
The hypothesis that the first replicating entity was an RNA molecule
Microbes that are descendants of a single, pure microbial culture. A single species may have many strains
The scientific study of organisms with the ultimate objective of characterizing and arranging them in an orderly manner; often considered synonymous with taxonomy
A group into which related organisms are classified
The science of biological classification; it consistsof three parts; classification, nomenclature, and identification
universal phylogenetic tree
A phylogenetic tree that considers the evolutionary relationships among organisms from all three domains of life: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eucarya
An RNA molecule with catalytic activity.
The theory that posits that the first self-replicating molecule was RNA and this led to the evolution of the first primitive cell.
The hypothesized early RNA-based biological entity that gave rise to DNA-based cellular life-forms.
Domelike microbial mat communities consisting of filamentous photosynthetic bacteria and occluded sediments (often calcareous or siliceous). They usually have a laminar structure.
Small subunit ribosomal RNAs (SSU rRNAs)
The rRNA associated with the small ribosomal subunit; 16S rRNA in procaryotes and 18S rRNA in eucaryotes.
Universal phylogenetic tree
A phylogenetic tree that considers the evolutionary relationships among organism from all three domains of life: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eucarya.
Genome fusion hypothesis
A hypothesis that seeks to explain the origin of the nucleus. It posits that certain archaeal and bacterial genes were combined to form a single eucaryotic genome.
The theory that mitochondria, hydrogenosomes, and chloroplasts arose when bacteria established an endosymbiotic relationship with ancestral procaryotic cells that then evolved into organelles.
An hypothesis that considers the origin of the eucaryotes through the development of the hydrogenosome. It suggests the organelle arose as the result of an endosymbiotic anaerobic bacterium that produced CO2 and H2 as the products of fermentation.
An organelle found in some anaerobic protists that produce ATP by fermentation.
Serial endosymbiotic theory (SET)
A theory of eucaryotic origin that suggests eucaryotes arose by a series of discrete endosymbiotic steps, each endosymbiont giving rise to a different organelle.
Anagenesis aka Microevolution
Changes in gene frequencies and distribution among species; the accumulation of small genetic changes within a population that introduces genetic variability but is not enough to result in either speciation or extinction.
Major evolutionary change leading to either speciation or extinction.
The observation based on the fossil record that evolution does not proceed at a slow and linear pace but rather is periodically interrupted by rapid bursts of speciation and extinction driven by abrupt changes in environmental conditions
The science of biological classification; it consists of three parts: classification, nomenclature, and identification.
A group into which related organisms are classified.
The branch of taxonomy concerned with the assignment of names to taxonomic groups in agreement with published rules.
The process of determining that a particular isolate or organism belongs to a recognized taxon.
The scientific study of organisms with the ultimate objective of characterizing and arranging them in an orderly manner; often considered synonymous with taxonomy.
A classification system that arranges organisms into groups whose members share many characteristics and reflect as much as possible the biological nature of organisms.
An approach in which taxonomic schemes are developed using a wide range of phenotypic and genotypic information
A classification system that groups organisms together based on the similarity of their observable characteristics.
Phylogenetic or phyletic classification systems
A classification system based on evolutionary relationships rather than the general similarity of characteristics.
The evolutionary development of a species
The use of genetic data to construct a classification scheme for the identification of an unknown species or the phylogeny of a group of microbes.
Species of higher organisms are groups of interbreeding or potentially interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated. Procaryotic species are collections of strains that have many stable properties in common and differ significantly from other strains.
A collection of bacterial or archaeal strains that share many stable properties and differ significantly from other groups of strains.
A population of orgnaisms that descends from a single organism or pure culture isolate.
Variant strains of microbes characterized by biological or physiological differences.
A variant strain of a microbe characterized by morphological differences.
A variant strain of a microbe that has distinctive antigenic properties.
The microbial strain that is the nomenclatural type or holder of the species name. A type strain will remain within that species should nomenclature changes occur.
A well-defined group of one or more species that is clearly separate from other organisms.
The nomenclature system in which an organism is given two names; the first is the capitalized generic name, and the second is the uncapitalized specific epithet.
Oligonucleotide signature sequences
Short, conserved nucleotide sequences that are specific for phylogenetically defined group of organisms. The signature sequences found in small subunit rRNA molecules are most commonly used.
Multilocus sequence typing (MLST)
A method for genotypic classification of procaryotes within a single genus using nucleotide differences among five to seven housekeeping genes.
A series of techniques based on restriction enzyme digestion patterns that enable the comparison of microbial species and strains and is thus useful in taxonomic identification.
Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)
The comparison of restriction fragments of specific genes or DNA fragments. When rRNA genes are analyzed in this way, it is called ribotyping.
The use of conserved rRNA sequences to probe chromosomal DNA for typing bacterial strains
A quantitative indication of the number of positions that differ between two aligned macromolecules, and presumably a measure of evolutionary similarity between molecules and organisms.
A method for developing phylogenetic trees based on the estimation of the minimum number of nucleotide or amino acid sequence changes needed to give the sequences being compared.
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