Unit 1: Civil War, Reconstruction, & Westward Expansion
Terms in this set (35)
Compromise of 1850
Congress would admit California as a free state.
New Mexico would decide for or against slavery by popular sovereignty.
Slave trade but not slavery would be ended in Washington D.C.
Congress would pass a strict fugitive slave law.
Texas would give up claims to New Mexico.
Dred Scott Decision
Court rules against Dred Scott despite him living in a free state, slaves were seen as property, not citizens. Slaves could not sue.
Kansas Nebraska Act
Kansas - Slave state
Nebraska - Free state
Allowed for decision on slavery by popular sovereignty
Overturned the Missouri Compromise
Despite Dred Scott decision, slavery could be excluded from territories of the United States by local legislation
Rationale for the United States to purchase Cuba from Spain while implying that the United States should declare war if Spain declined
South did not elect Lincoln and believed that nothing could outlaw slavery so they seceded
A military decree issued by Lincoln that freed all enslaved people in states still in rebellion after January 1, 1863
Turning point in the war for the West
Union (North) victory
Speech by Lincoln in which he dedicated a national cemetery at Gettysburg and reaffirmed what the Union was fighting for
Northern civil war strategy to starve the South by blocking seaports and controlling the Mississippi River
Negative term for people from the North who moved to the South after the civil war
Congressmen who advocated full citizenship rights for African Americans with a harsh reconstruction for the South
A system in which someone is forced to work to pay off a debt
A system in which a farmer tended a portion of a planter's land in return for a share of the crop
African American Migration***
African Americans moved from the South to the North
Jim Crow Laws
Segregation laws enacted in the South after reconstruction. Limit freedoms. Black codes = Jim Crow Laws
Organization promoting hatred and discrimination against specific ethnic and religious groups
Laws that restricted African Americans' rights and opportunities (could not vote or own land)
Outlaw slavery in the United States
Guarantees citizenship to African Americans and prohibits states from passing laws to take away citizens' rights
States that no citizen can be denied the right to vote because of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude"
The period from 1890's to 1920's are considered the "nadir" or low point in race relations
Defined zones designed to encourage Indians to live in certain areas
United States began acquiring land across the West
19th century doctrine that Westward expansion of the United States was not only inevitable but a God given right
1887 law that divided reservation land into private family plots.
Ended Native American Nations. Gave each family 160 acres of land, after 25 years granted ownership and United States citizenship
What were the causes and consequences of the Civil War?
States' Rights & Territories: Tariffs on imports were seen as unfair by southerners because the
South imported more goods than the North. Another controversial issue was the expansion of
slavery into newly formed territories (see Compromise of 1850 & Kansas-Nebraska Act). The South
believed state regulations came before federal regulations.
Slavery Issue: Southerners saw slavery as necessary for their agrarian economy. Northern
abolitionists believed slavery was morally wrong. See the Dred Scott decision and Uncle Tom's
Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe.
Final Catalysts: The free state-slave state balance enabled by the Compromise of 1850 proved
difficult with western expansion. Violence arose due to the divisions caused by the Kansas-Nebraska
Act ("Bleeding Kansas"). The election of Abraham Lincoln outraged the South and they no longer
felt they had representation in the federal government. Southern states began to secede in protest.
The South fired against northern-held Fort Sumter beginning the war.
Economic Impact: Most of the war was fought in the South leaving many parts of it destroyed. This
included roads, transportation systems, and schools. Major cities were in ruins and the South's
economy was slow to industrialize. The South suffered huge losses in its labor force. While the
South struggled to rebuild, the industrial economies of the North and Midwest boomed rapidly.
Social Impact: The Emancipation Proclamation freed Confederate slaves, and allowed African-
Americans to serve in the military. The Civil War offered women new opportunities. With many
men away at war, women made progress in many professions once dominated by men. The most
notable role for women was nursing.
Who were the significant people or groups of Reconstruction and what were their goals?
Abraham Lincoln: Lincoln's goal was to end the resentment caused by the war and quickly reunify
Radical Republicans: The term described congressmen who supported full citizenship rights for
former slaves, such as voting rights and rights to land ownership. They favored punishment of the
Andrew Johnson: Disagreed with Lincoln's view and believed the Confederacy should be punished.
He made punishment against Confederate leaders more severe. Seceded states were not allowed
back right away and were put under military occupation. Johnson later pardoned Confederate
leaders angering Radical Republicans.
U.S. Grant: Grant agreed with the Radical Republicans' stance on granting rights to African
Americans. However, he disagreed with their desire to punish the Confederacy.
What were the issues that divided Republicans during the early Reconstruction Era?
Moderate Republicans: Restore the Union; Give freed slaves some civil equality; Keep former
Confederates out of government.
Radical Republicans: Create an entirely new South; Give freed slaves the right to vote; Punish the
rebels; Give land to former slaves.
What impact did the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments have on African Americans and others?
13th Amendment: Prohibited slavery in the United States.
14th Amendment: Designed to establish the terms and rights of citizens and to curb the rights of
former Confederates. States cannot deprive citizens of "life, liberty, or property, without due
process of law." Nor, may states deny anyone "the equal protection of the laws."
15th Amendment: Guaranteed the right to vote to any citizen regardless of race, color, or previous
enslavement. Continued denial of voting rights to women.
How did Jim Crow laws influence life for African Americans and other minority groups?
Jim Crow laws created requirements such as poll taxes and literacy tests intended to deny African
American men the right to vote. Physical segregation was common: African Americans were forced
to ride in separate train cars and attend separate schools. The Supreme Court upheld the Jim Crow
laws in Plessy v. Ferguson stating that "separate but equal" facilities were not unconstitutional.
What effects did the Black Codes and Nadir have on freed people?
Although technically free, freed African Americans found themselves again in virtual slavery. The
period of time between the end of Reconstruction and the early 20th century has been called the
"Nadir," or the lowest point of American race relations. Black Codes were state laws which allowed
states to restrict the rights of African Americans. The laws limited occupations open to African
Americans, restricting them to household and agricultural labor.
What were the effects of sharecropping and debt peonage as practiced in the United States?
Sharecroppers were unable to pay off debts and fell deeper into debt. The weight of the debt
bound the sharecropper to the landowner as completely as they had been bound by slavery.
How did Westward Expansion influence the lives of Native Americans?
Westward expansion had important consequences for the American Indians who lived in the areas
where white settlers wanted to move. American Indians who resisted to white settlers on their land
were frequently defeated in violent conflicts. State and federal laws were passed to take away or
buy American Indian land. American Indians were then forced to move west of the Mississippi River
to new lands. By the late 1880s, many Native American tribes in the West had been destroyed. The
small number of Native Americans left in the U.S. had been forcibly removed from their lands and
were confined to small government reservations.