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Chapter 20 Key Terms and Key Questions: Environmental Science
Terms in this set (44)
What two ways can pollution cause illness and how?
WHO has begun to collect data on how the Environment affects human health?
World Health Organization (WHO)
People in_______ countries suffer less from environmental causes in poor health.
study of toxic substances, including their nature, effects, detection, method of treatment, and exposure control
What are 3 examples of toxic pollutants and their effects?
pg. 512 Table 1.2
amount of a harmful substance to which a person is exposed
the damage to health that results from exposure to a given dose
The toxic effect of a chemical depends on_______ as _________ depends on the number of times a person was exposed, the person's size, and how well the person's body breaks down the chemical.
chemical that breaks down very slowly
Why is a persistent chemical dangerous?
most likely to remain in the body
a graph that shows the relative effect of various doses of a drug or chemical on an organism or organisms
What happens if you are about or below the threshold dose?
exposure to an amount of chemicals less than a threshold dose has no adverse effect on health
study of the spread of disease in populations and the study of factors that influence the occurrence and spread of disease
estimate of the risk posed by a specific substance
What are the four steps to Risk Assessment?
1. compiling and evaluating existing information
2. determining how people might be exposed
3. determining the toxicity of a substance
4. Characterizing the risk of the substance
What does Risk Assessment lead to and who regulates it?
evacuation and government
How can naturally occurring pollutants become hazardous to health?
concentrated about normal levels
particles in the air that are small enough to breathe into the lungs
What do particulates do to humans?
blocking of air ways
pollutant from natural sources
What can heavy metals do to humans?
Why do we know so little about the health effects of chemicals?
About 10% of commercial chemicals have been tested for their toxicity, about 1,000 new chemicals introduced every year
Name at least two recent improvements and the results of them.
Regulation and lower levels of substance
Name three examples of premature death caused by burning fossil fuels
These pollutants and particulates contribute to premature death each year from asthma, hear disease, and lung disorders
chemicals designed to kill unwanted organisms such as insects, fungi, or weeds
How are pesticides beneficial?
They allow us to grow more food by reducing past damage.
Why do pesticides pose a greater risk to children?
internal organisms are still developing
children eat and drink more due to body weight
What everyday objects do we use that are made from toxic chemicals?
couch, carpet, chair etc.
What problems to PCB's pose to adults and children?
Children- learning problems
Adults- memory lost
What problems occur from landfills and sewage treatment plants, and why are waste disposal laws not working?
Much of the pollution is our environmental is a byproduct of inadequate waste disposal.
organisms or viruses that causes disease
List three ways disease can spread.
air, water, and people
an organism from which a parasite takes food and shelter
How are most infectious disease transmitted?
Why is disease a bigger problem in developing countries?
cholera and dysentery
an intermediate host that transfers a pathogen or a parasite to another organisms
Water polluted with ________ _______ causes some of the deadliest waterborne disease known as Cholera and Dysentery.
What causes Malaria?
_______ is an environmental problem that leads to an increased exposure to pathogens.
What happens to bacteria after long exposure to antibiotics?
How are scientists trying to prevent mosquito's from spreading Malaria?
draining marches; sterilize female mosquito's
What is our main defense against viruses and why are they not always accurate in killing the virus?
no drugs; new vaccines
has moved from one species to another
What are two examples of cross-species transfers?
West Nile virus, HIV, and Flu
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